Boleh dikatakan semua orang tahu apa itu migrain, malahan budak kecil pun tahu kerana sudah biasa dan menjadi sebutan dalam masyarakat kita.
Pada umumnya orang tahu bahawa migrain adalah sakit kepala yang teramat sangat (ada orang kata, macam nak pecah kepala) tetapi hanya bertumpu di sesuatu kawasan atau di sebelah kepala sahaja. Migrain akan datang berulang-ulang kali selagi faktor yang menyebabkannya masih tidak dihapuskan/dihindari. Setakat ini tiada ubat yang mujarab untuk menghilangkan migrain secara terus buat selama-lamanya. Ubat yang ada hanya ubat menahan sakit, selepas itu doktor akan suruh berehat untuk meredakan migrain tersebut.
Maklumat lanjut tentang migrain terdapat dalam artikel berikut:
What are Migraine Headaches?
There are two types of headaches that have been identified: primary headaches which are not associated with any underlying pathology and include migraine, cluster, and tension headaches and secondary headaches, which are attributable to an underlying pathological condition such as tumor, infection, or a vascular condition.
People who suffer from migraine headaches are called migraineurs. Migraine headaches are characterized by:
* Pain typically starting around the eyes, on the side of the head (temples), or in the forehead
* Pounding, throbbing, or pulsating pain
* Unilateral (one side of the head) pain but could be bilateral
* Pain duration of 2 hours to three days
* Sensitivity to light and sound during the migraine
* Disabling and incapacitating pain during severe headache
* Presence of an aura, a pattern of lines or shadows in front of the eyes, in a minority of patients
* Physical exertion, such as lifting or climbing stairs may intensify the pain
* Nausea, with or without vomiting in approximately 80% of migraineurs
* An almost universal desire to lay down in a dark, quiet room and sleep
The National Headache Foundation estimates that approximately 20.5 million people in the U.S. suffer from migraine headaches. Migraines occur most commonly between the ages of 15 and 55 though they are not uncommon in preschoolers and elementary school-age children. Migraines typically peak at 40-50 years of age and subside thereafter in both men and women. Up to 80% of migraineurs have a family history of migraine headache.
The largest subgroup of people who experience migraine headaches is women in their reproductive years. It is estimated that up to 25% of all migraine attacks occur in the perimenstrual period of the menstrual cycle (from two days before up to 3 days after the cycle begins).
It is estimated that less than half the people suffering from migraines receive a correct diagnosis by their physicians. Migraines are severely underdiagnosed and are often misdiagnosed as tension or sinus headaches. When left untreated, a migraine headache can continue for up to 72 hours. They may occur as infrequently as twice a year or as often as daily. For unknown reasons, some migraineurs spontaneously go into remission and experience an extended period of time (even years) without headaches.
Many migraineurs never even go to a doctor for an official diagnosis for several reasons, including:
* They feel like they can manage their headaches with over-the-counter (OTC) medication or home remedies.
* They may feel that their headache is not serious enough to warrant medical attention.
* They may have been misdiagnosed and when medication didn’t help, they assume that there’s nothing else available.
* They may have been correctly diagnosed but may have been given incorrect medications or inadequate doses of the appropriate medications.
Important Facts about Migraine Headaches
* In Western countries, migraine headache is estimated to affect 12% of the general population. Migraine is most common in North and South America, less so in Europe and Africa, with the lowest rate in Asia.
* Women suffer from migraines approximately 3 times as often as men – 18% of women vs. 6% of men.
* Prevalence of migraine in the United States has remained stable at approximately 11% over the past five years. It is estimated that migraine headache affects at least one person in every four households.
* Approximately 30 million people in the United States suffer from migraine headaches. The prevalence of migraine headaches is greater than that of asthma and diabetes combined.
* The majority of headache sufferers who consult their primary care physicians have migraine headaches, yet they are usually misdiagnosed and undertreated.
* It is estimated that only 40% of migraineurs use prescription drugs for their headaches.
* Migraine headache places an enormous burden on the individual who is suffering, their family, and society in terms of lost days of work or school, impact on functioning in the family unit, lost productivity, absenteeism, and elevated health care costs.
* It is estimated that the annual cost of lost productivity and absenteeism from migraine headache in the US is $13 billion and the cost of caring for people suffering from migraine is approximately $1 billion.
* The World Health Organization (WHO) considers migraine to be one of the 20 most disabling diseases worldwide.
Knowledge is Critical when Dealing with a Life-Altering Condition such as Migraine Headaches
If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with migraine headaches, it’s critical to learn everything you possibly can about this condition so that you can make informed decisions about your treatment. That’s why we created the Medifocus Guidebook on Migraine Headaches, a comprehensive 132 page patient Guidebook that contains vital information about migraine headaches that you won’t find anywhere in a single source.
The Medifocus Guidebook on Migraine Headaches starts out with a detailed overview of the condition and quickly imparts fundamentally important information about migraine headaches, including:
* The underlying causes of migraine headaches.
* The risk factors that can increase a person’s chances for developing migraine headaches.
* The triggers that can precipitate an acute attack of migraine headaches in many patients.
* A detailed overview of the different types of migraine headaches that are recognized, which include:
o Migraine with aura
o Migraine without aura
o Basilar migraine
o Chronic migraine
o Transformed migraine
* The signs and symptoms of migraine headaches.
* How migraine headaches are diagnosed based on factors such as signs/symptoms, patient history, and physical examination.
* Other medical conditions that may be confused with migraine headaches and must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of migraine headaches.
Understanding the Standard Treatments… and the Treatment Options
The goals of treatment for people with migraine headaches include:
* Reduce the frequency, severity, and duration of migraine headaches.
* Prevent future attacks of migraine headaches.
* Enable patients to function and lead a reasonably good quality of life.
* Provide education, support, and counseling to patients and their families.
Understanding the standard treatments – and the treatment options - is critical for successfully achieving the goals of treatment for migraine headaches. As you read through the section of the Guidebook that focuses on the treatments for migraine headaches, you will specifically learn about:
* The specific medications that are commonly prescribed for the treatment of migraine headaches, which include:
o Migraine-specific medications
o Rescue medications
* A detailed overview of the U.S. Consortium on Headache practice guidelines for the treatment of migraine headaches.
* Abortive strategies that may be used to prevent the onset of migraine headaches.
* Special considerations in the treatment of migraine headaches in other populations such as:
o Women who are pregnant
* The role of complementary and alternative therapies in the management of migraine headaches.
* The prognosis (outlook) for people with migraine headaches.
* Quality of life issues that often confront people with migraine headaches and how to minimize their impact and cope better with these issues.
* Important questions to ask your doctor about migraine headaches.