Mengenal tanda lahir (birthmarks)

Hampir semua orang mempunyai tanda lahir atau birthmarks, cuma jenis dan bentuk saja yang berbeza-beza. Tanda lahir yang besar di kawasan muka sebanyak sedikit mencacatkan kecantikan semulajadi seseorang itu. Ini selalunya menyebabkan seseorang itu berasa malu dan rasa rendah diri, terutama sekali pada zaman kanak-kanak di mana mereka selalu diejek oleh kawan-kawan sebaya. Lebih menyedihkan lagi kalau gelaran-gelaran berkaitan yang kurang enak didengar melekat sehingga ke tua.

Pernahkah anda terfikir bagaimana tanda lahir ini terjadi? adakah ia trait (ciri) warisan dari satu generasi ke generasi yang lain?

Persoalan ini akan terungkai kalau anda meneruskan membaca artikel di bawah ini….

Birthmarks and Other Abnormal Skin Pigmentation

Skin is just like the humans who wear it: It’s not perfect. If everything went as planned, the body would produce just enough skin pigment and blood vessels would behave.

But that’s not the case. There are birthmarks and other pigmentation disorders that affect many people. We’ve included some of the most common abnormalities here.

Remember: never self-diagnose! If you think you have one of these skin pigmentation abnormalities, make sure you visit a doctor to receive an official diagnosis.

Birthmarks

As might be expected, this type of abnormal skin coloration will appear at birth or in just a few weeks following birth. It’s important to remember that most birthmarks are non-cancerous, though a doctor should examine your child if he or she is born with abnormally colored skin or develops birthmarks shortly after birth. Certain birthmarks described below can pose health risks.

Pigmented Birthmarks

The discoloration of the skin will appear smooth and flat. These spots are known by several names, including Mongolian spots — bruised or bluish in color, typically appearing on buttocks; cafe-au-lait spots — light brown; and typical moles, which are also called nevi. Moles should be monitored for bleeding, color, shape, or size changes, or itching.

Macular Stains

These appear anywhere on the body as mild red marks, but they are not elevated. Macular stains are the most common type of vascular (from blood vessels) birthmark. These marks can come in two forms:

* Angel’s kisses may appear on the forehead and eyelids, but will typically disappear early in childhood.

* Stork bites will appear on the back of the neck and can last into adult years.

Because these marks are often mild, there is no treatment necessary.

Hemangioma

Hemangiomas are caused by many tiny blood vessels bunched together and vary in severity. Typically, this birthmark can be just that, a mark, or it can grow larger and larger until treated. Hemangiomas can grow very rapidly through the first year of a child’s life.

There are two types of hemangiomas: strawberry hemangiomas, which are slightly raised, red birthmarks and can appear anywhere on the body; or cavernous hemangiomas, which are a deeper birthmark characterized by a bluish color.

Most hemangiomas will go away on their own; roughly 50% resolve by age five, 70% by age seven and 90% by age nine.

Reasons to treat hemangioma include problems with functions (such as sight, eating, hearing, or defecation), ulceration, or pain. Hemangiomas can be treated in different ways, each of which carries its own risks.

Corticosteroid medication, which can be injected or taken orally, is one option for treating hemangiomas. Risks associated with corticosteroid medication include high blood pressure, high blood sugar, poor growth, or cataracts. If corticosteroids fail, there are other medications that may be an option.

Certain hemangiomas can also be treated with lasers to stop them from growing. Risks associated with that treatment include ulceration and scarring.

In some cases, a hemangioma can also be removed with surgery. Other times, a combination of these approaches is the most beneficial treatment.

Port-wine Stains

Picture of Port Wine Stains Port-wine stains are caused by abnormal development of blood vessels (capillaries) and last a lifetime. The port-wine stain (also known as nevus flammeus) appears as a flat, pink, red or purple mark, and occurs on the face, trunk, arms, or legs.

If you or your child has a port-wine stain present on eyelids, this is thought to pose an increased risk of glaucoma, an eye disease associated with increased pressure in the eyes that can lead to blindness if it’s not treated.

Doctors have tried many ways to treat port-wine stains, including radiation, tattooing, freezing, dermabrasion, or sclerotherapy. Laser treatment is currently the only method that destroys capillaries in the skin without causing damage to the rest of the skin.

Port-wine stains may be seen in certain medical disorders, including Sturge-Weber Syndrome, with symptoms that include port-wine stains on the face, vision problems, convulsions, mental retardation, and perhaps even paralysis; and Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome which may include symptoms of many port-wine stains, varicose veins and/or too much bone and soft tissue growth. Each of these syndromes is very rare.

Skin Pigmentation Disorders

Albinism

Albinism, an inherited disorder, is caused by the absence of the pigment melanin and results in no pigmentation in skin, hair, or eyes. In albinos, their body has an abnormal gene, which restricts the body from producing melanin. There is no cure for albinism, and individuals should use a sunscreen at all times because they are much more likely to get sun damage and skin cancer. This disorder can occur in any race.

Melasma

Melasma (also known as chloasma) is characterized by tan or brown patches on the cheeks, nose, foreheard, and chin. Although this condition is typically termed the “pregnancy mask,” men can also develop this condition. Melasma may go away after pregnancy but, if it persists, can be treated with certain prescription creams and some over the counter skin care products. Remember to consult your doctor or dermatologist for a proper diagnosis of this condition before you choose to treat it yourself. If you have melasma, use a sunscreen at all times because sunlight will worsen your condition.

Pigmentation Loss As a Result of Skin Damage

If you’ve had a skin infection, blisters, burns, or other trauma to your skin, you may have a loss of pigmentation in the affected area. The good news with this type of pigment loss is that it’s frequently not permanent, and cosmetics can be used to cover the area.

Vitiligo

Vitiligo is a pigmentation disorder in which melanocytes (the cells that make pigment) are destroyed. As a result, white patches of skin appear on different parts of the body. The cause of vitiligo is not known, but some possible causes include physical trauma or certain diseases such as diabetes. There is no cure for vitiligo, but there are several treatments, including psoralens (light-sensitive drugs) used in combination with ultraviolet A light treatment.

The story behind birthmarks?

Birthmark Basics

Birthmarks gain attention when there’s a media blitz about someone with a visible mark, such as New Orleans Saints quarterback Drew Brees. News reports suggest that he was born with this birthmark on his right cheek, which doctors checked early on and found to be harmless. Folk wisdom calls such babies “touched by an angel,” but a doctor’s advice is best.

What Is a Birthmark?

A birthmark is a colored mark on or under the skin that’s present at birth or develops shortly after birth.Some birthmarks fade with time; others become more pronounced. Birthmarks may be caused by extra pigment in the skin or by blood vessels that do not grow normally. Most birthmarks are painless and harmless. In rare cases, they can cause complications or are associated with other conditions. All birthmarks should be checked by a doctor.

Salmon Patches

Salmon patches are nests of blood vessels that appear as small, pink, flat marks on the skin. They occur in 1/3 of newborn babies. Salmon patches can appear on the back of the neck (“stork bite”), between the eyes (“angel’s kiss”), or on the forehead, nose, upper lip, or eyelids. Some fade as baby grows, but patches on the back of the neck usually don’t go away. Salmon patches require no treatment.

Port Wine Stains

A port wine stain begins as a flat, pinkish-red mark at birth and gradually becomes darker and reddish-purple with age. Most will get bigger and thicker, too. Port wine stains are caused by dilated blood capillaries. Those on the eyelid may increase the risk of glaucoma. Port wine stains may be a sign of other disorders, but usually not. Treatment includes laser therapy, skin grafts, and masking makeup.

Mongolian Spots

Mongolian spots are flat, smooth marks that are present from birth. Frequently found on the buttocks or lower back, they’re typically blue, but can also be bluish gray, bluish black, or brown. They may resemble a bruise. Mongolian spots are most common on darker-skinned babies. They usually fade by school age, but may never disappear entirely. No treatment is required.

Cafe-Au-Lait Spots

Cafe-au-lait spots are smooth and oval and range in color from light to medium brown, which is how they got their name, “coffee with milk” in French. They’re typically found on the torso, buttocks, and legs. Cafe-au-lait spots may get bigger and darker with age, but are generally not considered a problem. However, having several spots larger than a quarter is linked with neurofibromatosis and the rare McCune-Albright syndrome. Consult a doctor if your child has several spots.

Strawberry Hemangiomas

Hemangiomas are a collection of small, closely packed blood vessels. Strawberry hemangiomas occur on the surface of the skin, usually on the face, scalp, back, or chest. They may be red or purple; they can be flat or slightly raised, with sharp borders.

Strawberry hemangiomas usually develop a few weeks after birth. They grow rapidly through the first year before subsiding around age 9. Some slight discoloration or puckering of the skin may remain at the site. No treatment is required, but when desired, medicines and laser therapy are effective.

Cavernous Hemangiomas

Present at birth, deeper cavernous hemangiomas are just under the skin and appear as a bluish spongy mass of tissue filled with blood. If they’re deep enough, the overlying skin may look normal. Cavernous hemangiomas typically appear on the head or neck. Most disappear by puberty. A combination of cavernous and strawberry hemangioma can occur.

Venous Malformation

Venous malformations are caused by abnormally formed, dilated veins. Although present at birth, they may not become apparent until later in childhood or adulthood. Venous malformations appear in 1% to 4% of babies. They are often found on the jaw, cheek, tongue, and lips. They may also appear on the limbs, trunk and internal organs, including the brain. They will continue to grow slowly, and they don’t shrink with time. Treatment — often sclerotherapy or surgery — may be necessary for pain or impaired function.

Pigmented Nevi (Moles)

Moles occur when cells in the skin grow in a cluster instead of being spread throughout the skin. They can appear anywhere on the body, alone or in groups. Moles are usually flesh-colored, brown, or black. Moles may darken with sun exposure and during pregnancy. They tend to lose color during adulthood and may disappear in old age. Most moles are not cause for alarm. However, moles may have a slightly increased risk of becoming skin cancer. Moles should be checked by a doctor if:

* They change size or shape.
* They look different from other moles.
* They appear after age 20.

Congenital Nevi

Congenital nevi are moles that appear at birth. The skin texture may range from normal to raised, or nodular to irregular. Congenital nevi can grow anywhere on the body and vary in size –from a small 1-inch mark to a giant birthmark covering half of the body or more. Small congenital nevi occur in 1% of newborns. Most moles are not dangerous. But congenital nevi, especially large ones, should always be evaluated by a doctor since they may have an increased risk of becoming skin cancer.

Dysplastic Nevi (Atypical Moles)

Atypical moles are generally larger (one-quarter inch across or more) than ordinary moles and have irregular and indistinct borders. They may resemble cancerous moles. They may have a mix of colors including pink, red, tan and brown.These moles tend to be hereditary. Atypical moles have an increased chance of developing into melanoma skin cancer. Have a doctor evaluate all moles that look unusual, grow larger, or change in any way.

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Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): Rawatan Semulajadi

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) atau radang sendi merupakan sakit atau masalah biasa di kalangan orang yang telah berumur. Dalam kes yang teruk, biasanya doktor akan memberi ubat untuk menahan sakit, walaupun kesannya hanya buat sementara waktu. Kebanyakan ubat penahan sakit ini mengandungi steroid berlebihan yang akan memberi kesan sampingan negatif kepada pesakit.

Oleh itu, cara yang lebih selamat ialah dengan menggunakan rawatan semula jadi (secara natural). Mungkin kesan yang boleh dirasai agak lambat berbanding dengan pengambilan ubat-ubatan kimia sebagai ubat penahan sakit, tetapi cara rawatan semula jadi ini dijangkakan memberi kesan positif dalam jangkamasa yang panjang.

Beberapa rawatan semula jadi untuk sakit radang sendi atau rheumatoid arthritis (RA) dipanjangkan di bawah ini….

Natural Treatments for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Looking for some natural treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, or RA? Natural therapies are popular today as people seek to control their health and healing. For those with RA, alternative techniques may let you have greater control of your pain and activities.

What Are Some Natural Treatments for Rheumatoid Arthritis?

According to the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), natural treatments for rheumatoid arthritis may range from moist heat, magnets, and massage to herbs, natural supplements, and relaxation remedies.

Although some of these natural treatments may help RA, none of these therapies is fully grounded in science and many have not been completely tested for side effects . Before you use any unprescribed remedy, always talk to your doctor.

How Are Heat and Cold Used for Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Many doctors recommend heat and/or cold treatments to reduce rheumatoid arthritis symptoms.

Cold compresses reduce joint swelling and inflammation. You can apply a cool compress or ice pack to the affected joint during an RA flare-up to help ease inflammation and pain.

You don’t want to overdo cold treatments. Apply the cold compress for 15 minutes at a time with at least a 30-minute break in between treatments.

Heat compresses relax your muscles and stimulate blood flow.

To use heat therapy, you can try a moist heating pad or a warm, damp towel. Many people like using microwavable hot packs. Don’t go too hot. Your skin should not burn.

You can also use heat therapy by standing in the shower. Letting the warm water hit the painful area on your body may help ease pain.

A hot tub is a good way to relax stiff muscles — and it’s enjoyable. (Caution: Avoid hot tubs or spas if you have high blood pressure, heart disease, or are pregnant.)

Can Magnets Improve Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms?

Magnets are commonly said to be a helpful alternative therapy for rheumatoid arthritis pain control. Found at most natural food stores, magnet therapies come in a variety of forms, such as bracelets, necklaces, inserts, pads, or disks.

Most research on magnets has been done in people with osteoarthritis, the wear and tear type of arthritis associated with aging.

In people with osteoarthritis, some preliminary studies have shown that magnets improved joint pain better than a placebo in people with knee or hip arthritis. Doctors do not understand exactly how magnets might relieve pain.

It’s unclear if magnets might also help those with rheumatoid arthritis.

What About Mind/Body Therapies for Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Many studies have reviewed the use of mind/body therapies for rheumatoid arthritis pain. Mind/body therapies may be helpful when added to conventional treatments.

Mind/body therapies may help with stress management. They can help improve sleep and pain perception.

Deep abdominal breathing: Taking deep, slow breaths from the abdomen (not the chest) can help alter your emotional state. Deep breathing can make a stressful moment lessen in intensity.

With deep breathing, you can decrease stress hormones. Deep breathing also helps slow your heart beat during stressful moments.

Progressive muscle relaxation: Concentrating on different muscle groups, contract then relax all of the major muscle groups in the body.

Start with your head, neck, and arms. Then contract and relax your chest, back, and stomach. Finish by doing your pelvis, legs, and feet.

Along with muscle relaxation, use deep breathing. Breathe in while tensing the muscles. Breathe out or exhale while relaxing the muscles.

Visualization: Visualization can help reduce stress and pain. With this exercise, you close your eyes, breathe deeply, and imagine that you’re in a quiet, peaceful place.

Using visualization during stressful times can be soothing and refreshing.

Meditation: Meditation brings about relaxation and stress reduction. It can slow the heart rate and breathing. Meditation reduces stress and helps with pain perception.

Those who practice meditation tell of having decreased anxiety and depression. They also report increased concentration and resilience.

Tai chi: Studies are being done on tai chi for pain reduction. The movements of tai chi are gentle, graceful, and mystical.

For those with arthritis, tai chi is a safe way to relieve pain. Tai chi can help increase range of motion and joint strength.

Some believe that tai chi has a spiritual component. Tai chi allows people to practice mindfulness as they focus in the moment and away from the pain.

Acupuncture: With acupuncture, the practitioner uses stainless steel needles to stimulate the major pathways — called “meridians” — in the body. The goal is to stimulate various points targeted at specific areas of the body.

Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners believe acupuncture can heal imbalances of energy, or “qi.” The practitioner tries to restore balance to the sick body and boost the immune system. It’s believed good health happens when qi flows unrestricted throughout the body.

Some doctors believe acupuncture needles decrease pain by triggering pain-blocking chemicals called endorphins. Endorphins are known as the body’s natural opioids. Other theories suggest that acupuncture may block pain signals.

Although little research has been done on people with rheumatoid arthritis, acupuncture studies do show an improvement in pain, particularly in people with back pain. Some studies have also shown a decrease in pain in people with osteoarthritis.

Biofeedback: With biofeedback, you learn to control automatic responses such as heart rate and blood pressure. By placing electric sensors on the body, information is sent to a monitor. You then have to react to stimuli such as thoughts, pictures, or sounds.

Working with a therapist, you’ll study your body’s reactions to the stimuli. The therapist will help you recognize feelings of increased tension and teach you ways to calm yourself.

There is insufficient medical evidence to determine how well biofeedback helps pain from arthritis.

Are There Safe Supplements for Rheumatoid Arthritis?

There are a few rheumatoid arthritis studies that show some benefit for certain supplements and natural remedies. However, the research is preliminary, so the true impact these supplements may have on RA is uncertain.

Keep in mind that even natural supplements can interact with other medications. Be sure your doctor is aware of all drugs and supplements you are taking.

Supplements for RA that have the best medical research to back them up include:

Borage. Some studies show that borage seed oil along with anti-inflammatory painkillers can reduce RA symptoms. These findings show reduced tender and swollen joints of RA after six weeks. Borage seed oil appears to be safe but may cause soft stools, diarrhea, and bloating. Borage seeds and other plant parts, such as the leaf or flower, may contain substances that are potentially harmful to the liver. Borage seed oil does not contain these harmful substances.

Fish oil. Studies show that omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil have an anti-inflammatory effect in the body. Several studies have shown that fish oil supplements may help reduce morning stiffness with RA. In addition, the omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil help protect against heart disease. People with RA are at a higher risk of developing heart disease. Fish oil appears to be safe when used appropriately. Doses greater than 3 grams per day may increase the chance of bleeding.

Thunder god vine. A few studies have shown a decrease in pain and tender joints in people with RA taking this supplement. A large government-funded study is under way comparing thunder god vine with traditional medicine for rheumatoid arthritis. Thunder god vine appears to be safe. However, pregnant women should not take this supplement as it may cause birth defects.

References:

NCCAM: “Rheumatoid Arthritis and Complementary and Alternative Medicine.”
NCCAM: “The Use of Magnets for Pain.”
Session 3: Joint Nutrition Society and Irish Nutrition and Dietetic Institute Symposium on “Nutrition and autoimmune disease” PUFA, inflammatory processes and rheumatoid arthritis.
Arthritis Today: “Supplement Guide.”
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database: “Rheumatoid Arthritis.”
Sales D, et al. Fish oil supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis. Reumatismo. 2008 July-September;60(3):174-179.

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Mengenal Omega-3

Umum mengetahui bahawa Omega-3 merupakan asid lemak yang sangat berguna untuk kesihatan dan sangat diperlukan oleh badan. Fakta itu memang tidak dapat dinafikan dan telah banyak diperkatakan.

Walau bagaimanapun, persoalannya, sejauh manakah selamatnya kita memakan omega-3 yang dijual dalam bentuk supplements/pil/softgel di pasaran? pastikah kita sumber omega-3 tersebut selamat daripada bahan tercemar (seperti mengandungi logam berat atau bahan karsinogen yang lain)? Siapa yang akan memastikannya?

Berikut dipanjangkan perkara-perkara yang perlu diketahui mengenai omega-3 dan yang yang perlu kita ambil perhatian….

What to Know About Omega-3s and Fish

Experts explain which fish are best for omega-3s, and which you should limit due to mercury.

By Annie Stuart
Reviewed by Brunilda Nazario, MD

Fish and omega-3 fatty acids. If you keep up with the latest nutrition news, you may have a pretty good sense of what they offer. But, if you’re like many people, you still can’t tell your omega-3s from your omega-6s — and you sure as heck can’t pronounce eicosapentaenoic acid. That’s OK. Our fishing expedition turned up some interesting facts to share about omega-3 fatty acids and fish.

What Are Omega-3 Fatty Acids?

Omega-3 fatty acids are found in fatty layers of cold-water fish and shellfish, plant and nut oils, English walnuts, flaxseed, algae oils, and fortified foods. You can also get omega-3s as supplements. Food and supplement sources of these fatty acids differ in the forms and amounts they contain.

There are the two main types of omega-3 fatty acids:

* Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). These are plentiful in fish and shellfish. Algae often provides only DHA.

* Short-chain omega-3 fatty acids are ALA (alpha-linolenic acid). These are found in plants, such as flaxseed. Though beneficial, ALA omega-3 fatty acids have less potent health benefits than EPA and DHA. You’d have to eat a lot to gain the same benefits as you do from fish.

Fishing for Facts: What Studies Reveal About Omega-3s and Fish

In addition to omega-3s, fish is high in protein, vitamins, and minerals. And, it’s low in saturated fat. Though more research is needed, it appears that your body absorbs EPA and DHA better from fish and fortified foods than it does from fish oil.

Hundreds of studies suggest that omega-3s provide protection against a wide range of diseases: cancer, asthma, depression, cardiovascular disease, ADHD, and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.

How could fatty acids be so beneficial for so many different conditions?

“All these diseases have a common genesis in inflammation,” says Joseph C. Maroon, MD, professor and vice chairman of the department of neurological surgery at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. Co-author of Fish Oil: The Natural Anti-Inflammatory, Maroon says that in large enough amounts omega-3’s reduce the inflammatory process that leads to many chronic conditions.

For these and other reasons, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) issued guidelines about fish, along with the American Heart Association and American Dietetic Association. They recommend consuming two 8-ounce servings of fish each week.

The Other Fatty Acid: Omega-6

Unfortunately, the American diet is swimming in omega-6s instead, says Jeffrey Bost, PAC, clinical instructor in the department of neurosurgery at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and also co-author of Fish Oil: The Natural Anti-Inflammatory.

“It’s in almost everything we eat,” he says. “Our diet has shifted away from fresh veggies and fish to foods high in omega-6s, such as crackers, cookies, and corn-fed beef.”

Before the introduction of grains, fats, and artificial substances, says Maroon, the ratio of omega-6s to omega-3s was two to one. Today, we consume at least 20 times more omega-6s than omega-3s. The problem is that omega-6 fatty acids promote inflammation in the body, while omega-3s do just the opposite.

Powerful Health Benefits of Omega-3s

Many studies documenting the benefits of omega-3s have been conducted with supplemental daily dosages between 2 and 5 grams of EPA and DHA, more than you could get in 2 servings of fish a week. But that doesn’t mean eating fish is an exercise in futility. Many studies document its benefits. For example, a 2003 National Eye Institute study showed that 60- to 80-year-olds eating fish more than twice a week were half as likely to develop macular degeneration as those who ate no fish at all.

Here’s a sample of other recent studies on omega-3s and fish.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids as Brain Food

DHA is one of the most prevalent fatty acids in the brain, and is highly synthesized along synapses. This could partly explain why our brains do better with a greater supply. A Rush Institute for Healthy Aging study analyzed fish-eating patterns of more than 800 men and women, ages 65 to 94. Those eating fish at least once a week were much less likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease than those who turned up their nose at it.

Another study of more than 2,000 Norwegians, ages 70 to 74, used food-frequency questionnaires to evaluate consumption of five different types of fish. The researchers then conducted cognitive tests. Those who ate fish of any kind were two to three times less likely to perform poorly on the tests. Fish eaters were also healthier — and less likely to have epilepsy, asthma, chronic bronchitis, and osteoporosis — than those who didn’t eat fish.

Investigators at the University of Kuopia, Finland, and at Harvard Medical School looked at the incidence of silent brain damage in about 3,500 people age 65 or older. Eating tuna or other non-fried fish was associated with a 25% lower risk of these abnormalities, which are linked to higher rates of stroke and cognitive decline.

Cancer Prevention With Omega-3s

Among 1,300 Swedish men, those who ate salmon and similar fish, such as herring or mackerel, had a much lower risk of developing prostate cancer than those who didn’t eat fish. Those eating five or more servings a week had a 64% lower risk of the disease.

Omega-3s for Healthier Arteries

Following postmenopausal women in Finland and the United States, investigators found that those eating two or more servings of fish each week had healthier arteries than women who ate less than two servings. Benefits were even greater in those eating tuna or another type of dark fish at least once a week.

To Fish or not to Fish — Weighing the Benefits and Risks

Mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are common toxins in seafood. Although the U.S. banned the use of PCBs and DDT in 1976, these and other chemicals are still used in half the world’s commercial chemical processes. Substances like these can hang around in the air, soil, and water for many years. They end up in the bodies of fish and animals.

The higher on the food chain, the greater the accumulation of toxins. Fish that eat plants are less contaminated than those that eat other fish. That’s why it’s better, in general, to eat smaller fish lower on the food chain or smaller portions of fish that may be contaminated.

The FDA released an advisory in 2004 about fish. The alert wasn’t meant for everyone. It was directed at women who were planning to become pregnant, were already pregnant, or were nursing a young child. For this group of people, the FDA advised against eating shark, swordfish, king mackerel, or tilefish — which contain high levels of mercury.

The FDA didn’t throw all the proverbial fish back in the water, though. It recommended eating two meals, or up to 12 ounces a week, of a variety of fish and shellfish containing lower amounts of mercury. Safer sources cited were:

* canned light tuna
* catfish
* pollock
* salmon, especially wild salmon
* shrimp

The FDA also made similar recommendations for feeding fish and shellfish to young children, but in smaller portions. It recommended checking local advisories for information about locally caught fish.

Questioning Conventional Wisdom About Fish

Muddying the waters, though, are research results outside the U.S. Some of these studies challenge U.S. assumptions and advice about fish consumption by pregnant women.

In a U.K. study, children of mothers who ate more than 12 ounces a week actually scored better on tests of verbal I.Q., social behavior, and development and communication than children of mothers who ate none. In the Seychelles Islands, where people average 12 fish meals — not ounces — a week, there are no reports of links between mercury exposure and poor outcomes in children. These studies suggest that eating less than 12 ounces of fish each week could do more harm to a child’s developing neurological system than mercury poisoning.

Unfortunately, fears about mercury and other pollutants may have caused Americans to start eating less fish. Following the FDA’s advisory, the Center for Food, Nutrition, and Agriculture Policy at the University of Maryland took an opinion poll of more than 1,000 Americans. What they found was this:

* A little more than a third ate fish occasionally.

* More than 1 in 10 were eating less fish and feeding less to their children than before the advisory came out.

* Most people didn’t realize the FDA aimed its advisory at only certain groups: women who are pregnant, nursing babies, or planning to get pregnant soon.

Reaping the Best Benefits of Fish and Omega-3s

You can take several steps to get the best benefits from fish.

Deep-six the omega-6s. Foods high in polyunsaturated fats, such as soybean, corn, sunflower, or safflower oils hurt you in more ways than one. Apparently these omega-6 fatty acids tend to reduce your body’s ability to absorb and metabolize the beneficial omega-3 fatty acids.

Go wild. Some farmed fish, like tilapia, are fed corn and grain, which is full of omega-6s, says Bost. Farmed salmon — fed chopped up fish — has higher levels of PCBs and other contaminants. Wild fish, by contrast, eat other fish that have consumed algae, which are great sources of omega-3s. In general, steer clear of farmed fish, says David K. Becker, MD, MPH, assistant clinical professor in the department of pediatrics at the University of California, San Francisco.

Cast about for healthy canned tuna. Think all tuna is created equal? Think again. Choose canned light tuna instead of tuna steaks or albacore tuna. It tends to have less mercury. Albacore may contain three times the mercury of chunk light tuna. Check fish guides for the latest information about foods low in toxins but high in omega-3. Here are two good sources:

* Monterey Bay Aquarium’s Seafood Watch web site
* Environmental Defense Fund web site

Do the sniff test. Buy the freshest fish you can find. The longer a fish is exposed to oxygen, says Bost, the more rancid it will become, losing some of its omega-3 benefits. Before cooking, smell fish to see if it’s become rancid.

Cook it up right. You can’t remove toxins by cooking, but you minimize exposure to PCBs by removing fish skin and surface fat before eating.

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Masalah kulit kanak-kanak

Berbanding dengan orang dewasa, kanak-kanak lebih mudah dijangkiti oleh penyakit kulit kerana kulit mereka yang lebih lembut, lebih sensitif dan lebih terdedah kepada jangkitan pelbagai kuman.

Pengenalpastian beberapa penyakit atau masalah kulit yang biasa terdapat pada kanak-kanak dikongsi di bawah ini, untuk perhatian dan panduan kepada ibubapa dan penjaga. Dengan itu langkah pencegahan awal dapat diambil…

What’s that?

Wondering what that rash, welt, or bump on your child’s skin is? Infection, allergies, and temperature extremes are often behind the skin conditions seen in babies and children — and many are minor and easily treated. You can learn to recognize some of the most common conditions — but remember: always consult a doctor for proper diagnoses and treatment.

Ringworm

Worms don’t cause ringworm. Instead, this skin infection is caused by a fungus living off dead skin, hair, and nail tissue. Starting as a red, scaly patch or bump, it develops into itchy red ring(s) with raised, blistery, or scaly borders. Ringworm is passed on by skin-to-skin contact with a person or animal, and by sharing items like towels or sports gear. Most ringworm infections can be treated with antifungal creams.

Fifth disease (‘slapped cheek’)

A contagious and usually mild illness that passes in a couple weeks, fifth disease starts with flu-like symptoms, followed by a face and body rash. Spread by coughing and sneezing, it’s most contagious the week before the rash appears. Treatment includes rest, fluids, and pain relievers (do not use aspirin if your child has fever), but watch for signs of more serious illness. If your child has Fifths and you are pregnant, contact your doctor.

Chickenpox

Although chickenpox rash was a common rash when most current adults were children, it isn’t commonly seen in children these days because of the chickenpox vaccine. Very contagious, chickenpox spreads easily, leaving an itchy rash and red spots or blisters all over the body. Chickenpox spots go through stages: blistering, bursting, drying, and crusting. Chickenpox can lead to serious complications such as pneumonia, brain damage, or death. People who have had chickenpox are also at risk for developing shingles later in life. A chickenpox vaccine is recommended for all young children. Teens and adults who never had chickenpox or received the vaccine should be vaccinated.

Impetigo

A contagious infection, impetigo causes red sores or blisters that can break open, ooze, and develop a yellow-brown crust. Sores can occur anywhere on the body but usually appear around the mouth and nose. Impetigo can be spread to others through close contact or by sharing items like towels and toys. Scratching can also spread it to other parts of the body. Antibiotic ointment usually cures it. Antibiotic pills may be needed.

Warts

Skin growths caused by contact with the contagious human papillomavirus, warts can spread from person-to-person or via contact with an object used by a person with the virus. Prevent the spread of warts by not picking them, covering them with bandages, and keeping them dry. In most cases warts are harmless, painless, and go away on their own. If they persist, treatments include freezing, surgery, lasers, and chemicals.

Heat rash (‘prickly heat’)

The result of blocked sweat ducts, heat rash looks like small red or pink pimples. Appearing over an infant’s head, neck, and shoulders, the rash is often caused when well-meaning parents dress baby too warmly, but it can happen to any infant in very hot weather. A baby should be dressed as lightly as an adult who is resting; though their feet and hands may feel cool to the touch, this is usually not a problem.

Contact dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is an allergic reaction caused by touching a substance, such as food, soap, or the oil of plants like poison ivy, sumac, or oak. The rash usually starts within 48 hours after exposure. Minor cases may cause mild skin redness or a rash of small red bumps, while severe reactions can cause swelling, redness, and larger blisters. Contact dermatitis is usually mild and goes away when contact with the substance ends.

Hand-foot-mouth disease (coxsackie)

This common, contagious childhood illness starts with a fever, then painful mouth sores and a non-itchy rash with blisters on hands, feet, and sometimes buttocks and legs follow. It spreads through coughing, sneezing, and used diapers, so wash hands often when dealing with coxsackie. Home treatment includes ibuprofen or acetaminophen (do not give aspirin) and lots of fluids. Not serious, coxsackie usually goes away on its own in about a week.

Atopic dermatitis

A chronic problem causing dry skin, intense itching, and a raised rash, some children outgrow atopic dermatitis, or have milder cases as they age. What causes atopic dermatitis isn’t clear, but those affected may have a personal history of allergies and asthma and a sensitive immune system.

Hives (urticaria)

Hives occur as a rash or welts and are often itchy, or may burn or sting. They can appear anywhere on the body and may last minutes or days. Hives can signal serious problems, especially if accompanied by difficult breathing. Medications like aspirin or penicillin; foods like eggs, nuts, and shellfish; food additives; temperature extremes, and infections like strep throat can cause hives. Removing the trigger often resolves the hives.

Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever is simply strep throat with a rash. Symptoms include sore throat, fever, headache, abdominal pain, and swollen neck glands. After 1-2 days, a red rash with a sandpaper texture appears, after 7-14 days, the rash sloughs off. Scarlet fever is very contagious, but good hand washing can reduce its spread. Call your pediatrician immediately if you think your child has it, and treat with antibiotics to avoid serious complications.

Roseola Infantum (sixth disease)

A mild, contagious illness, roseola infantum is most common in children age 6 months to 2 years, and is rare after age 4. The symptoms are respiratory illness, followed by a high fever (which can trigger seizures) for up to eight days. Fevers abruptly end and are followed by a rash of small, pink, flat, or slightly raised bumps on the trunk, then the extremities. The fever can be managed with acetaminophen (do not use aspirin).

White Bumps (Milia)

Tuberous Sclerosis (Fibrous Plaque)

Tuberous sclerosis, fibrous plaque. Raised skin-colored plaque on the forehead of a child representing a connective tissue nevus.

Auricular Tags

Auricular tags. Supernumerary vestiges of the external structures of ears are common. Accessory tragi and auricular tags with or without communication to deeper structures may be deceptively simple. Those in Fig. 27-13 are probably harmless nubs of tissue that could be sliced off and their bases delicately electrodesiccated. Should that be all there is, the cosmetic result would be fine. Sometimes, however, such structures bear cartilage within them and have communication to uncertain depths toward the more important structures in the external canal or middle ear.

Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

Juvenile xanthogranuloma. This is a common and completely benign cutaneous nodule. Typically, a juvenile xanthogranuloma is firm and dome-shaped. At first, the lesion is reddish, but develops a fairly typical orangebrown hue over time. Most juvenile xanthogranulomas are located on the head or neck, as pictured in these two infants, but the lesions sometimes occur on the trunk or extremities. They may be present at birth, but most develop during the first year of life. Juvenile xanthogranuloma is not associated with abnormalities in serum cholesterol or triglycerides, and the individual lesions undergo spontaneous involution, usually over a period of 1–2 years. A diagnostic biopsy analysis is sometimes needed, but surgical intervention beyond this is certainly not required. Multiple juvenile xanthogranulomas on the skin may be accompanied by intraocular lesions. For this reason, the physician must pay careful attention to the examination of the eyes.

Panniculitis from Cold

Panniculitis from cold. Local exposure to cold leads to the formation of ice crystals within cells. Injury to cell contents occurs during both cooling and thawing.

Hair Grafts

1–4 hair grafts.

Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome

Rothmund-Thomson syndrome is a rare condition that affects many parts of the body, particularly the skin.

People with this condition typically develop redness on the cheeks between ages 3 months and 6 months. Over time the rash spreads to the arms and legs, causing patchy changes in skin coloring, areas of skin tissue degeneration (atrophy), and small clusters of enlarged blood vessels just under the skin (telangiectases). These skin problems persist for life, and are collectively known as poikiloderma.

Rothmund-Thomson syndrome is also characterized by:

* sparse hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes;

* slow growth and small stature;

* abnormalities of the teeth and nails;

* gastrointestinal problems in infancy, such as chronic diarrhea and vomiting.

* Some affected children develop a clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract), which affects vision.

* Many people with this disorder have skeletal abnormalities including absent or malformed bones, delayed bone formation, and low bone density (osteopenia). Some of these abnormalities affect the development of bones in the forearms and the thumbs, and are known as radial ray malformations.

* People with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome have an increased risk of developing cancer, particularly a form of bone cancer called osteosarcoma. These bone tumors most often develop during childhood or adolescence.

* Several types of skin cancer are also more common in people with this disorder.

Sucking Blister

Sucking blister. The oval blister pictured here was present at birth and is a result of normal sucking behavior in utero. Sucking blisters are fairly common and are usually located on the forearm, wrist, or hand. They are most often solitary and involve only one upper extremity. However, lesions involving both hands, or even involving a foot, are sometimes seen. The sucking blister resolves spontaneously as soon as bottle or breast is offered as a dietary substitute.

Transient Neonatal Pustular Melanosis

Transient neonatal pustular melanosis. This is a benign neonatal dermatosis that is most common among African- American infants. The original lesion is a vesiculopustule, which may be present at birth. This small blister quickly ruptures and leaves a typical collarette of superficial scale processes, such as neonatal herpes simplex. Tzanck smear of a pustule of erythema toxicum neonatorum will reveal numerous eosinophils but no multinucleated giant cells or bacteria. Occasionally, peripheral eosinophilia is also present. The cause of this condition is not known, and it resolves spontaneously within 10 days. No treatment is required.

Tuberous Sclerosis (Adenoma Sebaceum)

Tuberous sclerosis, adenoma sebaceum. Small erythematous papules on the nose and cheeks of a child representing angiofibromata.

Tuberous Sclerosis (Periungual fibroma)

Tuberous sclerosis, periungual fibroma. Flesh-colored periungual papule appearing in adolescence in an individual with tuberous sclerosis.

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Allah Won’t Ask

Untuk peringatan bersama…. Semoga kita semua berada dalam Perlindungan dan Rahmat Allah SWT.

ALLAH WON’T ASK

Waw… besarnya ikan siakap!

Siapa kata perairan Malaysia tidak kaya dengan ikan-ikan gergasi? Lihat gambar ini…. seekor ikan siakap besar (gergasi) berjaya ditangkap di Sungai Merbok, Kedah, walaupun hutan paya bakau yang menjadi tempat perlindungan ikan-ikan ini semakin hari semakin pupus dek arus pembangunan di kawasan sekitarnya…..

Kalau ikan ini dibuat lauk masak tiga rasa, entah berapa puluh orang yang kenyang kan?

SEAKAN tidak percaya siakap XL masih mendiami Sungai Merbok.

Siakap Merbok

Oleh Mohammad Shamwen Hashim
2010/07/24

SUNGAI PETANI: Perairan Pantai Merdeka, Sungai Merbok dan Pulau Sayak terkenal dengan kehadiran ikan siakap bersaiz XL. Namun itu cerita lama kerana sekarang ini kalau dapat menewaskan siakap seberat 5 kilogram pun dikira berbaloi.

Pembangunan pesat di sekitar Sungai Petani merangkumi Sungai Merbok dan anak sungai di sekitarnya membuatkan hutan bakau semakin pupus.

Itu belum dikira dengan penebangan hutan bakau secara haram. Biasanya kayu bakau mendapat pasaran yang tinggi untuk dibuat kelong, candek, langgai dan dijadikan kayu arang. Faktor sungainya yang cetek juga memburukkan keadaan selain pencemaran kilang berhampiran. Rata-rata pemancing sudah beralih angin ke laut dan pulau bagi memburu ikan sasaran.

Bagi kami yang gemar melakukan casting pula tiada pilihan kecuali menjelajah tanpa jemu untuk mencuba dan terus mencuba. Kami cuba menyelongkar lubuk baru kalau-kalau siakap mega yang diimpikan masih wujud.

Pancingan siang agak mengecewakan. Namun nasib menyebelahi kami pada waktu malam. Kami menyewa bot untuk menyusuri alur sungai yang agak jauh ke hulu. Biasanya lokasi sunyi menjadi tempat persembunyian siakap putih. Enjin dimatikan sejurus hampir ke lokasi.

Bot ditambat pada pokok bakau supaya mudah kami memancing. Di sinilah nasib menyebelahi Kashimi apabila menewaskan siakap putih seberat 6 kg menggunakan umpan udang hidup.

Apabila letih, kami singgah memancing di atas sangkar ikan milik rakan penulis, Syaiful Lizan dan Cikgu Abul Hayat. Di sini juga kami dapat memancing spesies kegemaran iaitu sembilang besar yang digelar gemang. Harganya memang tinggi di pasaran ketika ini.

Mudah saja memancing sembilang. Sediakan perumpun dan mata kail kecil serta perambut halus. Kemudian pacak joran di keliling sangkar dan pasangkan loceng. Bila terdengar loceng berdering, itu tanda ia mengena. Jika nasib kurang baik dapatlah ikan belukang atau ikan duri. Keesokan paginya kami masih sempat memancing ikan tanda dan gerut-gerut sebelum pulang dengan hasil tangkapan yang agak memuaskan.

Sumber Berita

Apa itu Type 2 Diabetes ?

Apabila disebut Type 2 diabetes, maka terbayanglah suntikan insulin kepada pengidap diabetes (penyakit kencing manis). Ini menunjukkan bahawa Type 2 diabetes ini amat menggerunkan kerana pada tahap ini sel-sel badan tidak lagi mampu untuk menyerap glukos daripada hasil penghadaman untuk digunakan oleh badan. Akibatnya, glukos (gula) akan berada di dalam darah dan ditapis di ginjal, akhirnya menjadikan air kencing mengandungi paras gula (glukos) yang tinggi, atau dikenali sebagai kencing manis.

Mari kita berkongsi maklumat mengenai Type 2 diabetes (penyakit kencing manis kronik) supaya langkah-langkah awal dapat diambil sebelum penyakit ini menyerang kita atau mengetahui cara mengendalikan penyakit ini bagi pengidapnya….

Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

Type 2 diabetes strikes people of all ages, and early symptoms are subtle. In fact, about one out of three people with type 2 diabetes don’t know they have it. Diabetes is a chronic condition that thwarts the body’s ability to change food into energy. This allows sugar levels to build up in the blood, which can increase the risk of heart disease, loss of vision, and other serious complications.

Insulin: Turning Glucose Into Energy

1) After eating, the stomach breaks carbohydrates down into sugars, including glucose. 2) Glucose enters the bloodstream and stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreas. 3) Insulin and glucose travel in the blood to all the body’s cells. Insulin allows glucose to enter the cells and be used as fuel. Excess glucose is stored in the liver.

Type 2 Diabetes

In diabetes, the cells cannot absorb glucose properly. That means glucose levels in the blood become elevated. With insulin resistance, the body makes excess insulin but the muscle, liver, and fat cells do not use or respond properly to insulin. With long-standing, uncontrolled type 2 diabetes the pancreas will reduce the amount of insulin it produces.

Diabetes Warning Sign: Thirst

One of the first symptoms of type 2 diabetes may be an increase in thirst. This is often accompanied by additional problems, including dry mouth, increased appetite, frequent urination — sometimes as often as every hour — and unusual weight loss or gain.

Diabetes Warning Sign: Headaches

As blood sugar levels become more abnormal, additional symptoms may include headaches, blurred vision, and fatigue.

Diabetes Warning Sign: Infections

In most cases, type 2 diabetes is not discovered until it takes a noticeable toll on health. One red flag is troubling infections, such as:

* Cuts or sores that are slow to heal.
* Frequent yeast infections or urinary tract infections.
* Itchy skin, especially in the groin area.

Diabetes Warning Sign: Erectile Dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction could be a complication of diabetes. Diabetes can cause damage to blood vessels and nerve endings in the penis causing impotence. It’s estimated between 35% and 70% of men with diabetes will have at least some degree of impotence in their lifetime.

Risk Factors You Can Control

* Being overweight, defined as a body mass index (BMI) over 25.
* Sedentary lifestyle.
* Abnormal cholesterol and blood fats, such as HDL “good” cholesterol lower than 35 mg/dL or a triglyceride level over 250 mg/dL.
* High blood pressure greater than 140 /90 in adults.
* Smoking.

Risk Factors You Can’t Control

* Race or ethnicity: Hispanics, African Americans, Native Americans, and Asians have a higher than average risk.
* Family history of diabetes: Having a parent or sibling with diabetes boosts your risk.
* Age: Being 45 and older increases your risk of type 2 diabetes.

The more risk factors you have, the greater your odds of developing type 2 diabetes.

Risk Factors for Women

Having gestational diabetes when you’re pregnant puts you at higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes later on. Women who give birth to a baby weighing over 9 pounds are also at risk. Having a history of polycystic ovary syndrome can also cause insulin resistance that can lead to diabetes.

Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes

A simple blood test can diagnose diabetes. The A1C test gives a snapshot of your blood glucose level over the past two to three months. An A1C level of 6.5% or more is consistent with the diagnosis of diabetes. A fasting plasma glucose test is another option. You must not eat for eight hours before the test. A result above 126 is considered diabetes. An oral glucose challenge test with a two-hour blood test may also help your doctor make a diagnosis.

Managing Diabetes: Diet

Fortunately, controlling blood sugar levels by changing diet can also cut your risk of complications. People with type 2 diabetes should carefully monitor carbohydrate consumption, as well as total fat and protein intake, and reduce calories. Ask your doctor for a referral to a registered dietitian to help you with healthy choices and an eating plan that will work for you.

Managing Diabetes: Exercise

Moderate exercise, such as strength training or walking, improves the body’s use of insulin and can lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Being active also helps reduce body fat, lower blood pressure, and protect against heart disease. People with type 2 diabetes should try to get 30 minutes of moderate exercise on most days of the week.

Managing Diabetes: Stress Reduction

Stress can cause blood pressure to rise. Or you may turn to food to cope. Both are bad when living with diabetes. Instead of letting stress take its toll, try practicing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, or visualization. Sometimes talking to a friend, family member, counselor, or member of the clergy can help. If you’re still battling stress, reach out to your doctor.

Managing Diabetes: Oral Medication

When people with type 2 diabetes are unable to control blood sugar sufficiently with diet and exercise, medication may be added. There are many types of diabetes pills available, and they are often used in combination. Some work by stimulating the pancreas to make more insulin, and others improve the effectiveness of insulin, or block the digestion of starches.

Managing Diabetes: Insulin

Your doctor may prescribe insulin early in on your treatment and in combination with pills. Insulin is also used in people with type 2 diabetes who develop “beta-cell failure.” This means the cells in the pancreas no longer produce insulin in response to high blood sugar levels. In this case, insulin therapy — injections or an insulin pump — must become part of the daily routine.

Glucose Testing

Testing your blood glucose level will let you know how controlled your blood sugars are and if you need to take actions to change your treatment plan. How often and when you test will be based on how controlled your diabetes is, the type of therapy used to control your diabetes, and whether you are experiencing symptoms of fluctuating sugars. Talk with your doctor to find out how often you should use a glucose meter to check your blood sugar. Some common testing times may be when waking up, before and after meals and exercise, and at bedtime.

Long-Term Damage: Arteries

Over time, untreated type 2 diabetes can damage many of the body’s systems. About two out of three people with diabetes die of heart disease. Having diabetes also puts you at a two to four times higher risk for stroke. People with diabetes are likely to develop plaque in their arteries, reducing blood flow and increasing risk of clots. This hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) raises the risk of heart attack and stroke.

Long-Term Damage: Kidneys

The longer you have diabetes, the greater the risk of developing chronic kidney disease. Controlling risk factors such as uncontrolled diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol reduces your risk of developing this complication. Annual screening for kidney disease and medications, which slow the development and progression of kidney disease, are used to reduce your risk of kidney failure.

Long-Term Damage: Eyes

High blood sugar can damage the tiny blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the retina, a critical part of the eye. This is known as diabetic retinopathy, and it can cause progressive, irreversible vision loss. It is the leading cause of blindness in people between the ages of 20 and 60. Pools of blood, or hemorrhages, on the retina of an eye are visible in this image.

Long-Term Damage: Nerve Pain

Uncontrolled diabetes, and elevated blood sugars over time, increases the risk of nerve damage. Symptoms include tingling, numbness, pain, and a pins and needles feeling in the fingers, hands, toes and feet . Nerve damage (neuropathy) can’t be reversed but treatments may help pain and numbness. Nerve damage can also affect other parts of your body such as your digestive system. Controlling your diabetes can help prevent further damage.

Long-Term Damage: Feet

Diabetic nerve damage can make it difficult to feel your feet and detect injury. At the same time, hardening of the arteries results in poor blood flow to the feet. Foot sores and gangrene can occur, even from small injury. In severe cases, infections can go unchecked and result in an amputation.

Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

One of the most astonishing things about type 2 diabetes is that such a life-altering condition is often preventable. To lower your risk, follow the same guidelines for warding off heart disease:

* Eat a healthy diet
* Exercise for 30 minutes, five days a week
* Maintain a healthy weight
* Talk to your doctor about being screened for prediabetes

In people with prediabetes, lifestyle changes and medication can help prevent the progression to type 2 diabetes.

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