Today’s Quote – 33

A man should choose a friend who is better than himself. There are plenty of acquaintances in the world, but very few are real friends ~ Chinese Proverb

Risiko ADHD oleh racun makhluk perosak

Seperti yang kita sedia maklum penggunaan racun makhluk perosak dalam pertanian boleh memberi kesan negatif kepada manusia kalau penggunaan racun ini tidak dikendalikan dengan betul dan berhati-hati.

Racun makhluk perosak (pesticide) merupakan bahan/campuran bahan yang digunakan untuk memusnahkan, menghalau dan mengurangkan kesan bahaya daripada makhluk perosak seperti rumpai, serangga, tikus, cacing, bakteria, kulat dan sebagainya.

Racun ini boleh menyerap masuk ke dalam tubuh kita melalui mulut, pernafasan atau kulit. Yang masuk melalui mulut ini termasuklah yang menghembus muncung (nozzle) yang tersumbat, melalui makan, minum dan merokok semasa menyembur atau melalui makan, minum bahan makanan/minuman yang tercemar dengan racun ini (terutamanya buah-buahan, sayur-sayuran yang dimakan). Oleh itu, untuk menghindari sisa racun makhluk perosak ini menyerap masuk ke dalam tubuh kita, buah-buahan dan sayur-sayuran perlu dibasuh bersih-bersih terlebih dahulu sebelum dimakan mentah/dimasak atau sebagai ulam-ulaman.

Artikel di bawah ini memfokuskan kepada kesan atau risiko penyakit ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) kepada bayi dan kanak-kanak yang terdedah oleh racun makhluk perosak yang mengandungi organofosfat. Tidak dapat dinafikan, banyak kita lihat kanak-kanak zaman sekarang tersangat lasak atau hiperaktif sehingga sukar untuk dikawal, selain daripada kurang daya tumpuan atau fokus kepada proses pembelajaran mereka. Kajian menunjukkan fenomenon ini semakin ketara dan semua ini dikaitkan dengan penggunaan racun makhluk perosak yang berleluasa di seluruh dunia yang akhirnya memberi kesan kepada ibu yang hamil dan anak dalam kandungannya.

Pesticide Exposure Linked to ADHD Risk

Study Shows Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphates Raises Risk of Attention Problems in Children

By Denise Mann
Reviewed by Laura J. Martin, MD

Aug. 20, 2010 — Exposure in the womb to pesticides known as organophosphates may increase the chance that children, especially boys, will develop attention problems by age 5, a study shows.

The research is published in Environmental Health Perspectives.

Researchers followed more than 300 children who took part in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study. It was designed to look at how exposure to organophosphate pesticides affects reproductive health.

The researchers measured levels of the breakdown products from these pesticides in the mother’s urine twice during pregnancy. Children were followed up at 3.5 years and at five years to see if they showed any symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is marked by inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Children with ADHD don’t do as well in school or in social situations as their peers without ADHD.

Pesticides and ADHD Risk

Moms who had higher concentrations of metabolites or breakdown products of these pesticides in their urine during pregnancy were more likely to have children who showed signs of attention problems by age 5, the study showed. The risk was more pronounced in boys than girls.

The children in this study lived in agricultural Salinas Valley, Calif. They had greater than average exposure to the organophosphate pesticides studied.

“It is worth looking at this more carefully and conducting more research on this topic since low-level exposure to pesticides and pesticide residues in food is quite common,” says study researcher Amy Marks, MPH, who was a research analyst at the University of California at Berkeley’s School of Public Health when the new study was conducted.

Other classes of pesticide compounds should be looked at as well, Marks says in an email. “Given the impact and prevalence of attention disorders in children (and adults), finding potential opportunities for prevention is important.”

Wash Fruits and Veggies to Get Rid of Residue

“We are not suggesting that people stop eating their fruits and vegetables,” she says. “Practically speaking, some things that concerned parents and parents-to-be can do is to wash their produce thoroughly and to buy organic, if this option is available and affordable to them,” she says. The group plans to study whether the effects of exposure to organophosphates on attention persist in older children.

In a related study slated to appear in the same journal, researchers found that some children may be more vulnerable to the effects of these pesticides than others. Children with lower levels of an enzyme called paraoxonase 1 (PON1), which breaks down organophosphates, were more likely to develop neurologic developmental delays than their peers who had higher levels of this enzyme.

The findings “provide another critical piece of evidence linking prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides with ADHD problems, demonstrating the persistence of adverse effects well into the preschool years,” says Virginia A. Rauh, ScD, deputy director of the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health in New York City, in an email.

The new report is consistent with other studies in the literature, says Rauh, whose institution is also conducting similar studies in New York City children. “This adds to the growing body of epidemiologic and experimental evidence showing worrisome links between organophosphate exposure, at levels common among U.S. children, and ADHD prevalence.”

Jeff Stier, the associate director for the American Council on Science and Health, a New York City-based nonprofit consumer health education group, takes issue with the new study findings and the reasoning behind some of the action points that the researchers suggest.

The “warning to consumers that we wash produce to prevent pesticide exposure is completely beyond the scope of the study, which evaluated agricultural workers, not consumers,” he says.

“We should wash produce before eating it to lower risk of food-borne illness, but not to reduce the imagined risk that trace pesticides would otherwise cause ADHD,” he says. “I’m concerned that studies like this will have the effect of causing parents to fear feeding healthy fruits and vegetables to their children.”


Kesan ADHD pada kanak-kanak yang terdedah kepada racun makhluk perosak secara terperinci dipanjangkan di bawah ini…

ADHD: What Is It?

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition that robs children of their ability to focus and pay attention. Kids with ADHD are fidgety and easily distracted. This makes it difficult to stay “on task,” whether it’s listening to a teacher or finishing a chore. The National Institute of Mental Health estimates 3% to 5% of kids have ADHD, but some experts believe that figure could be as high as 10%.

ADHD Symptoms: Inattention

The main symptom of ADHD is the inability to pay attention. Kids may have trouble listening to a speaker, following directions, finishing tasks, or keeping track of personal items. They may daydream often and make careless mistakes. Children with ADHD tend to avoid activities that require sustained concentration or that might be boring.

ADHD Symptoms: Hyperactivity

Another component of ADHD is the inability to sit still. Children may run and climb on things constantly, even when indoors. When they are seated, they tend to squirm, fidget, or bounce. Some kids with ADHD talk excessively and find it difficult to play quietly.

ADHD Symptoms: Impulsiveness

A third symptom is impulsiveness – cutting in line, interrupting others, or blurting out answers before the teacher finishes a question. This aspect of ADHD makes it difficult for children to wait their turn or think before they act.

ADHD’s Impact on Daily Life

Without treatment, ADHD can affect a child’s development socially and academically. The inability to focus often leads to poor performance in school. Kids who interrupt or cut in line may have trouble making and keeping friends. These setbacks can lead to low self-esteem and risky behaviors. ADHD also increases the risk of childhood depression and anxiety disorders.

Causes of ADHD

Children with ADHD have less activity in areas of the brain that control attention. They may also have imbalances in brain chemicals called neurotransmitters. It’s unclear what causes these irregularities, but ADHD runs in families, so many experts believe genetics play a role.

Diagnosing ADHD

There are no lab tests to detect ADHD. Instead, doctors rely on the patient’s response to questions, the family’s description of behavior problems, and a school assessment. With ADHD, a child must display some combination of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity for at least six months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with his or her age. Onset of the symptoms need to have appeared no later than age 7.

Types of ADHD

There are three forms of ADHD. Combined type is the most common and applies to children who display inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. In the hyperactive/impulsive type, children are fidgety and can’t control their impulses, but they are able to pay attention. Kids with the inattentive type, formerly called attention deficit disorder, have trouble focusing. But they are not overly active and usually don’t disrupt the classroom.

Medications for ADHD

Stimulant medications can help increase a child’s attention span while controlling hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Studies suggest these drugs work in 70% to 80% of patients, although they have some troubling side effects. Non-stimulant medications are also options for some children.

Counseling for ADHD

Counseling can help a child with ADHD learn to handle frustrations and build self-esteem. It can also provide parents with supportive strategies. A specific type of therapy, called social skills training, can help kids improve at taking turns and sharing. Studies show that long-term treatment with a combination of drugs and behavioral therapy is more effective than medication alone.

Special Education for ADHD

Most children with ADHD are educated in standard classrooms, but some do better in a more structured environment. Special education is a type of schooling that is tailored to meet the specific needs of children with learning disabilities or behavioral disorders. Not all children with ADHD qualify for special education.

The Role of Routine

Parents can give kids more structure at home by laying out clear routines. Posting a daily schedule will remind your child of what he or she is supposed to be doing at any given time. This can help a child with ADHD stay on task. The schedule should include specific times for waking up, eating, playing, homework, chores, activities, and bedtime.

ADHD Diets

Studies on ADHD diets have produced mixed results, but many health experts believe foods that are good for the brain could reduce symptoms of ADHD. High-protein foods, including eggs, meat, beans, and nuts, may improve concentration. It’s also helpful to replace simple carbs, like candy and white bread, with complex carbs, like pears and whole-grain bread. Talk to your pediatrician before making any dramatic changes to your child’s diet.

ADHD and Junk Food

While many kids bounce off the walls after eating junk food, there is no evidence that sugar is a cause of ADHD. The role of food additives is less certain. Some parents believe preservatives and food colorings worsen the symptoms of ADHD, and the American Academy of Pediatrics says it’s reasonable to avoid these substances. One brain researcher recommends kids with ADHD steer clear of red and yellow food colorings, MSG, and aspartame.

ADHD and Television

The link between television and ADHD is unclear, but the American Academy of Pediatrics suggests limiting young children’s exposure. The group discourages TV viewing for kids under 2 and recommends no more than two hours a day for older kids. To help your child develop attention skills, encourage activities like games, blocks, puzzles, and reading.

Preventing ADHD

There is no surefire way to prevent ADHD in children, but there are steps you can take to reduce the risk. You can increase your chance of your child not having ADHD by staying healthy during pregnancy. Start by avoiding alcohol, drugs, and tobacco during pregnancy. Children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy are twice as likely to develop ADHD.

Outlook for Children With ADHD
With treatment, a large majority of children with ADHD improve. They should continue to undergo regular follow-up since many kids grow out of the disorder as they get older. But more than half of patients continue experiencing symptoms once they reach adulthood.


Mencari syurga dan menjauhkan neraka…

Barangsiapa yang mengumpulkan enam perkara nescaya ia mencari syurga dan meninggalkan neraka, iaitu: Pertama, ia mengenal Allah, lalu mentaatiNya. Kedua, ia mengenal syaitan, lalu mendurhakainya. Ketiga, ia mengenal kebenaran, lalu mengikutinya. Keempat, ia mengenal yang bathil, lalu menjagai diri daripadanya. Kelima, ia mengenal dunia, lalu menolaknya. Keenam, ia mengneal akhirat, lalu mencarinya ~ Ali r.a.

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