Mengenal apnea tidur

Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan apnea tidur?

Apnea tidur ialah gangguan tidur dengan kesulitan bernafas atau nafas terhenti (tanpa nafas) terjadi berulang-ulang kali semasa tidur.

Apnea tidur ini terjadi kerana laluan udara tersumbat apabila tisu lembut di bahagian belakang leher terjatuh atau mengendur semasa tidur atau kegagalan otak memberi isyarat kepada otot pernafasan untuk bernafas semasa tidur. Oleh itu, apnea tidur ini boleh berlaku kepada sesiapa saja tidak kira umur, muda atau pun tua, tetapi ia lebih kerap berlaku kepada orang lelaki terutama yang lebih berat badan. Di antara golongan yang berisiko mendapat apnea tidur ini ialah orang yang mempunyai leher yang besar, mempunyai tonsil dan lidah yang besar tetapi mempunyai tulang rahang yang kecil, refluks gastroesofagus atau warisan daripada ibubapanya.

Jika apnea tidur ini tidak dirawat dengan sewajarnya, risiko mendapat berbagai-bagai penyakit berkaitan, seperi tekanan darah tinggi, diabetes type 2, serangan sakit jantung, kegagalan jantung berfungsi, asthma dan denyutan nadi tidak sekata, adalah tinggi. Apnea tidur juga boleh menyebabkan seseorang itu kurang daya fokus, yang akan membawa kepada banyak masalah lain dalam kehidupannya. Oleh itu, segera dapatkan nasihat dan rawatan doktor.

Artikel berikut menerangkan dengan lebih terperinci tentang apnea tidur serta cara-cara untuk merawatnya….

Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder that occurs when a person’s breathing is interrupted during sleep. People with untreated sleep apnea stop breathing repeatedly during their sleep, sometimes hundreds of times. This means the brain — and the rest of the body — may not get enough oxygen.

There are three types of sleep apnea:

* Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): The more common of the two forms of apnea, it is caused by a blockage of the airway, usually when the soft tissue in the back of the throat collapses during sleep.

* Central sleep apnea: Unlike OSA, the airway is not blocked but the brain fails to signal the muscles to breathe due to instability in the respiratory control center.

* Mixed sleep apnea (both central sleep apnea and obstructive sleep apnea).

During sleep, the brain instructs the muscles of breathing to take a breath.

* Central sleep apnea (CSA) occurs when the brain does not send the signal to the muscles to take a breath, and there is no muscular effort to take a breath.

* Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs when the brain sends the signal to the muscles and the muscles make an effort to take a breath, but they are unsuccessful because the airway becomes obstructed and prevents an adequate flow of air.

* Mixed sleep apnea, occurs when there is both central sleep apnea and obstructive sleep apnea.

Am I at Risk for Sleep Apnea?

Sleep apnea can affect anyone at any age, even children.

Risk factors for sleep apnea include:

* Male gender
* Being overweight
* Being over the age of forty
* Having a large neck size (17 inches or greater in men and 16 inches or greater in women)
* Having large tonsils, a large tongue, or a small jaw bone
* Having a family history of sleep apnea
* Gastroesophageal reflux, or GERD
* Nasal obstruction due to a deviated septum, allergies, or sinus problems

What Are the Effects of Sleep Apnea?

If left untreated, sleep apnea can result in a growing number of health problems including:

* High blood pressure
* Stroke
* Heart failure, irregular heart beats, and heart attacks
* Diabetes
* Depression
* Worsening of ADHD

Snoring may seem comical, but obstructive sleep apnea is no joke. It can increase your risk of high blood pressure and diabetes — and even make you more dangerous on the road.

These seven health problems are linked to obstructive sleep apnea:

1. High blood pressure. Obstructive sleep apnea can contribute to high blood pressure in people who have it. The frequent nighttime wakings that plague people with sleep apnea cause hormonal systems to go into overdrive, which results in high blood pressure levels at night. Low blood-oxygen levels, caused by the cutoff of oxygen, may also contribute to hypertension in people with sleep apnea. The good news: Some people with high blood pressure who are treated for sleep apnea can cut back on their blood pressure medications.

2. Heart disease. People with obstructive sleep apnea are more likely to suffer heart attacks and die in the middle of the night. The causes may be low oxygen or the stress of waking up often during sleep. Stroke and atrial fibrillation – a problem with the rhythm of the heartbeat — are also associated with obstructive sleep apnea. The disrupted oxygen flow caused by sleep apnea makes it hard for your brain to regulate the flow of blood in arteries and the brain itself.

3. Type 2 diabetes. Sleep apnea is very common among people with type 2 diabetes – up to 80% of diabetics have some obstructive sleep apnea. Obesity is a common risk factor for both disorders. Although studies haven’t shown a clear link between sleep apnea alone and type 2 diabetes, sleep deprivation can cause insulin resistance, a precursor to diabetes.

4. Weight gain. Adding weight raises your risk of sleep apnea, and up to two-thirds of people with sleep apnea are severely overweight. Obstructive sleep apnea can often be cured if you lose enough weight, but that can be tough to do.

Being overweight causes fatty deposits in the neck that block breathing at night. In turn, sleep apnea impairs the body’s endocrine systems, causing the release of the hormone ghrelin, which makes you crave carbohydrates and sweets. Also, people with sleep apnea who are tired and sleepy all the time may have lower metabolisms, which can also contribute to weight gain. Getting treatment for sleep apnea can make you feel better, with more energy for exercise and other activities.

5. Adult asthma. Although the link to obstructive sleep apnea is not proven, people who are treated for sleep apnea may find they have fewer asthma attacks.

6. GERD. There’s no proof that sleep apnea causes acid reflux, but many people with sleep apnea complain of acid reflux, and treating it seems to improve apnea symptoms, say sleep physicians.

7. Car accidents. Daytime grogginess can put people with sleep apnea at increased risk of falling asleep behind the wheel. People with sleep apnea are up to five times more likely than normal sleepers to have traffic accidents.

Treating Sleep Apnea

The increased risk for health problems linked to sleep apnea can be scary, but effective treatment for sleep apnea is available. In most cases, a sleep specialist will recommend a machine known as CPAP. Although it can take some getting used to, people who use CPAP feel better and are healthier. Talk to your doctor about treating your sleep apnea and preventing related health problems.

In addition, untreated sleep apnea may be responsible for poor performance in everyday activities, such as at work and school, motor vehicle crashes, as well as academic underachievement in children and adolescents.

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Hadis Qudsi – 20 ~ Menemui Allah

Berkata Abu Umamah r.a. bahawasanya Nabi SAW telah bersabda: Allah Taala telah berfirman:

“Jika hamba-Ku suka menemui-Ku, Aku juga suka menemuinya. Dan jika dia benci menemui-Ku, Aku juga benci menemuinya.” (Riwayat Malik, Bukhari dan Nasa’i)

Memahami Menopause and Perimenopause

Menopause atau putus haid kekal adalah sesuatu yang pasti berlaku kepada setiap wanita yang normal apabila telah sampai masanya. Namun begitu, masanya adalah berbeza antara seorang dengan seorang yang lain disebabkan oleh berbagai-bagai faktor yang berlainan. Bagi wanita normal, secara semulajadinya wanita akan putus haid (menopause) dalam lingkungan umur 51 tahun, tetapi ada yang jauh lebih awal iaitu seawal 38 tahun atau sehingga 60 tahun. Selepas menopause, wanita tidak akan mengeluarkan ovum lagi dan tidak mungkin akan melahirkan anak lagi.

Di antara faktor yang menyebabkan menopause awal ialah pembedahan atau pembuangan organ pembiakan (sama ada ovari atau uterus) yang mungkin disebabkan oleh kanser atau penyakit lain, rawatan kanser seperti kemoterapi atau radioterapi, pengambilan ubat tertentu, dan sebagainya.

Banyak perubahan dari segi fisiologi badan semasa proses menopause di mana hormon estrogen semakin menurun yang mana ini dikaitkan dengan risiko mendapat serangan sakit jantung di samping osteoporosis (densiti tulang yang mengurang – tulang reput). Tanda menopause yang biasa ialah “hot flash” di mana badan terasa panas secara berkala antara 30 saat – 10 minit lamanya bagi satu-satu masa, terutamnya di bahagian muka dan leher, diikuti dengan tompokan merah di dada, belakang dan lengan, kemudian diikuti dengan peluh yang banyak dan selepas itu baru badan menjadi sejuk.

Cara untuk mengurangkan “hot flash” ini dengan berkipas, memakai pakaian yang diperbuat daripada kain kapas, menggunakan tilam yang nipis, bersenam dan mengurangkan makan makanan yang pedas dan berempah.

Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan perimanopause?

Perimanopause ialah tempoh transisi antara haid terakhir sehingga satu tahun (atau ada yang mengambil masa lebih lama daripada setahun) selepas itu atau sehingga masa manopause sebenar. Dalam masa perimanopause ini ovarinya masih berfungsi dan berkemungkinan boleh melahirkan anak lagi. Jadi, hati-hati dalam tempoh ini…

Artikel ringkas tentang menopause dan perimanopause serta kaedah untuk melegakan kesan kedua-duanya dipanjangkan di bawah ini untuk manfaat bersama…..

Menopause and Perimenopause

Reviewed by Louise Chang, MD

Menopause: What Is It?

Menopause is the permanent end of menstruation. It’s a turning point, not a disease, but it can have a big impact on a woman’s well being. Although menopause can bring physical upheaval from hot flashes, night sweats, and other symptoms, it can also be the start of a new and rewarding phase of a woman’s life — and a golden opportunity to guard against major health risks like heart disease and osteoporosis.

What Causes Menopause?

Age is the leading cause of menopause. It’s the end of a woman’s potential childbearing years, brought on by the ovaries gradually slowing down their function. Certain surgeries and medical treatment can induce menopause. Those include surgical removal of the ovaries (bilateral oopharectomy), chemotherapy, and pelvic radiation therapy. Having a hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus) without removing the ovaries does not lead to menopause, although you will not have periods anymore.

When Does Menopause Start?

On average, women are 51 at natural menopause, notes the National Institute on Aging. But menopause can start earlier or later. A few women start menopause as young as 40, and a very small percentage as late as 60. Women who smoke tend to go through menopause a few years earlier than nonsmokers. There is no proven way to predict menopause age. It’s only after a woman has missed her periods for 12 straight months, without other obvious causes, that menopause can be confirmed.

Before Menopause, Perimenopause

Natural menopause happens gradually. The ovaries don’t abruptly stop; they slow down. The transition to menopause is called perimenopause. Menopause is a milestone — it’s the day that marks 12 months in a row since a woman’s last period. During perimenopause, it’s still possible to get pregnant — a woman’s childbearing years are winding down, and although her periods may become more unpredictable, her ovaries are still functioning and she still may ovulate, though not necessarily on a monthly basis.

Menopause: What to Expect

Menopause isn’t a one-size-fits-all event. It affects each woman differently. Some women reach natural menopause with little to no trouble; others experience severe symptoms that drastically hamper their lives. And when menopause starts suddenly as a result of surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation, the adjustment can be tough. Here is a look at menopausal symptoms that many women experience, though the intensity can vary.

Menopause Sign: Period Changes

As menopause approaches, a woman’s menstrual periods will likely change. But those changes can vary from woman to woman — periods may get shorter or longer, heavier or lighter, with more or less time between periods. Such changes are normal, but the National Institute on Aging recommends seeing a doctor if your periods come very close together, if you have heavy bleeding or spotting, and if your periods last more than a week.

Menopause Symptom: Hot Flashes

Hot flashes (or hot flushes) are common around menopause. A hot flash is a brief feeling of heat that may make the face and neck flushed, cause temporary red blotches to appear on the chest, back, and arms. Sweating and chills may follow. Hot flashes vary in intensity and typically last between 30 seconds and 10 minutes. Dressing in light layers, using a fan, getting regular exercise, avoiding spicy foods and heat, and managing stress may help you deal with hot flashes.

Menopause Symptom: Sleep Issues

Nighttime hot flashes can hamper sleep and cause night sweats. Try these sleep tips:

* Use a fan in your bedroom.
* Avoid heavy bedding.
* Choose light cottons or sheer materials for your nightclothes.
* Keep a damp cloth nearby to cool yourself quickly if you wake up feeling hot and sweaty.
* Keep pets out of your bedroom; they can give off heat.
* Consult your doctor if menopause sleep problems persist.

Menopause Symptom: Sex Problems

Less estrogen can lead to vaginal dryness, which may make intercourse uncomfortable or painful. Try using a water-soluble lubricant. Libido may also change, for better or worse, but many factors besides menopause — including stress, medications, depression, poor sleep, and relationship problems — affect sex drive. Talk to your doctor if sex problems occur — don’t settle for a so-so sex life. And remember, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) don’t end with menopause; “safer” sex still counts.

Managing Severe Symptoms

If menopause symptoms are a problem, talk with your doctor. He or she can help you weigh the risks and benefits of menopausal hormone therapy, also known as hormone replacement therapy. Other treatments include low-dose birth control pills if you’re perimenopausal; antidepressants, blood pressure drugs, or other medications to help with hot flashes; and vaginal estrogen cream. Your doctor may also have lifestyle tips about adjusting your diet, exercise, sleep, and stress management.

Hormone Replacement Therapy

Hormone replacement therapy can ease menopausal symptoms. Various prescription products are available to treat hot flashes and vaginal symptoms. Some are also recommended to prevent osteoporosis. The FDA recommends taking the lowest dose that helps, and only for the shortest time because studies have linked long-term use of hormone replacement therapy to a greater risk of heart attacks, strokes, blood clots, and breast cancer.

Bioidentical Hormone Therapy

“Bioidentical hormone therapy” for menopausal symptoms can refer to certain FDA-approved prescription drugs. Or it can refer to custom-compounded hormones derived from plants prepared at compounding pharmacies to match each unique patient. Some doctors claim that compounded bioidentical hormones are safer, but the FDA isn’t convinced. The FDA’s advice — take the lowest dose for the shortest time — applies to bioidentical hormone therapy. Custom-compounded bioidentical hormones aren’t FDA approved.

Alternative Menopause Treatments

Interested in trying alternative or complementary treatments for menopause symptoms? According to the National Institutes of Health, there hasn’t been a lot of well-designed research on this topic, so the research isn’t firm enough to draw conclusions about treatments such as black cohosh, dong quai, red clover (shown here), and soy. Talk it over with your doctor, and tell him about any supplements you take, so he can check on drug interactions.

Menopause Health Risks

With menopause comes a greater chance of heart disease (which is the No. 1 cause of death for U.S. women) and osteoporosis (thinning bones, seen here). Loss of estrogen may play a role for heart disease after menopause, but hormone replacement therapy is not recommended to reduce the risk of heart disease or stroke. Of course, heart and bone health is important throughout a woman’s life, but menopause means it’s really time to step up and get serious about it, if you haven’t already.

Menopause: Staying Healthy

Living a healthy lifestyle is important throughout a woman’s life. And, it’s not too late to start at menopause. Get a checkup that includes measuring your blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood sugar and make appointments for routine screenings such as mammograms. Menopause is also a great time to upgrade your diet, physical activity, and stress management skills — your doctor can give you pointers as you work together to plan for a healthy menopause.

Active Menopause a Must

One of the smartest things a woman can do as she transitions to menopause and afterward is to get regular physical activity. That includes aerobic exercise for her heart and weight-bearing exercise for her bones — both of which may help ward off weight gain and provide a mood boost. Even if a woman hasn’t been very active in her younger years, it’s never too late to start. Menopause is a new beginning, and the perfect time to weave more activity into your life.

Menopause: A New Era Starts

Western culture has long been obsessed with youth. But today’s menopausal women are making the most of — and even celebrating — their new phase of life. Instead of looking back mournfully, physician-author Christiane Northrup recommends using menopause as a time to redefine yourself with positive thoughts, love yourself, explore what brings you pleasure, and revive (not retire) your sex life.

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Apabila terpisah daripada makhluk

“Apabila Allah melepas dan memisahkan saya dari semua makhluk dan dikurnia-Nya saya dengan sinaran-Nya dan diberinya saya tahu rahsia-rahsia-Nya, maka terlihatlah oleh saya Allah itu dengan mata hatiku. Apabila saya bandingkan nur Allah dengan diriku, maka terasa hina dan tidak bernilainya saya. Di hadapan kesucian-Nya, saya adalah tidak suci.” ~ Abu Yazid Al-Bistami.

Today’s Quote – 148

“Men’s natures are alike, it is their habits that carry them far apart.” ~ Confucius

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