Penyakit kulit: Kurap

Kurap atau ringworm adalah satu daripada penyakit kulit yang menjijikkan dan selalu dipandang hina dalam masyarakat Melayu. Sebab itu ada perumpamaan “seperti anjing kurap” dsb. Kurap mudah berjangkit dalam keadaan lembab terutamanya bagi kita yang duduk di kawasan tropika. Selain itu, berkongsi pakaian dengan orang yang berpenyakit ini juga menyebabkan kurap merebak dengan cepatnya. Yang jelasnya, kebersihan diri dan pakaian perlu dijaga untuk mengelakkan diri daripada dihinggapi oleh fungus penyebab kurap ini.

Oleh itu untuk mengetahui lebih lanjut mengenai kurap dan cara-cara untuk menghindarinya, di bawah ini dipanjangkan artikel berkaitan…

What is ringworm?

Ringworm is a common skin disorder otherwise known as tinea. While there are multiple forms of ringworm, the most common affect the skin on the body (tinea corporis), the scalp (tinea capitis), the feet (tinea pedis, or ‘athlete’s foot’), or the groin (tinea cruris, or ‘jock itch’).

Does ringworm mean I have worms?

Ringworm is not, as its name suggests, caused by a worm. Characterized by round lesions (rings) and early belief that the infection was caused by a parasite (worm), the term ringworm was born. Further confusion comes from the medical term for ringworm, tinea, which is Latin for ‘growing worm.’ While the condition is actually the result of a fungal infection, the name ‘ringworm’ has stuck.

What causes ringworm?

Although the world is full of yeasts, molds, and fungi, only a few cause skin problems. Ringworm fungi are known as dermatophytes — microscopic organisms that live off the dead tissues of your skin, hair, and nails, much like a mushroom can grow on the bark of a tree.

What types of ringworm are there?

As mentioned previously, there are several types of ringworm (tinea) that can affect different parts of the body. On the next several slides, we’ll take a look at the various forms from head to toe.

Ringworm of the body (tinea corporis)

When fungus affects the skin of the body, it often produces the round spots of classic ringworm. Sometimes, these spots have an “active” outer border as they slowly grow and advance. It is important to distinguish this rash from other even more common rashes, such as nummular eczema. This condition, and others, may appear similar to ringworm, but they are not fungal and require different treatment.

Ringworm of the scalp (tinea capitis)

Ringworm of the scalp commonly affects children, mostly in late childhood or adolescence. This condition may spread in schools. Tinea capitis appears as scalp scaling that is associated with bald spots (in contrast to seborrhea or dandruff, for instance, which do not cause hair loss).

Ringworm of the foot (tinea pedis)

Tinea pedis is an extremely common skin disorder. It is the most common and perhaps the most persistent of the fungal (tinea) infections. Also known as athlete’s foot, it may cause scaling and inflammation in the toe webs, especially the one between the fourth and fifth toes. Another common form of tinea pedis produces a thickening or scaling of the skin on the heels and soles as well as blisters between the toes or on the sole.

Ringworm of the groin (tinea cruris)

Tinea of the groin (‘jock itch’) tends to have a reddish-brown color and to extend from the folds of the groin down onto one or both thighs. Other conditions that can mimic tinea cruris include yeast infections, psoriasis, and intertrigo, a chafing rash which results from skin rubbing against skin.

Ringworm of the beard (tinea barbae)

Ringworm of the bearded area of the face and neck, with swellings and marked crusting, often with itching, sometimes causes the hair to break off. In the days when men went to the barber daily for a shave, tinea barbae was called barber’s itch.

Ringworm of the face (tinea faciei)

Ringworm on the face outside of the beard area is called tinea faciei. On the face, ringworm is rarely ring-shaped. Characteristically, it causes red, scaly patches with indistinct edges.

Ringworm of the hand (tinea manus)

Ringworm may involve the hands, particularly the palms and the spaces between the fingers. It typically causes thickening (hyperkeratosis) of these areas, often on only one hand. Tinea manus is a common companion of tinea pedis (ringworm of the feet). It is also called tinea manuum.

Ringworm of the nails (tinea unguium)

This is the most common fungal infection of the nails, also called onychomycosis. It can make fingernails look white, thick, opaque, and brittle, but more often toenails look yellow, thick, and brittle. Artificial nails increase the risk for tinea unguium as emery boards can carry infection, and water can collect under the artificial nail, creating a moist, warm environment favorable for fungal growth.

How did I get ringworm?

Ringworm is highly contagious and can be spread multiple ways. You can get it from an infected person, animal, object, and even soil. Heat and moisture help fungi grow and thrive, which makes them more common in areas of frequent sweating as well as skin folds such as those in the groin or between the toes. This also accounts for their reputation as being caught from contaminated items such as toilet articles, clothing, pool surfaces, showers, and locker rooms.

Catching ringworm from pets.

Ringworm is an example of a zoonotic disease (transmitted from animals to humans). Cats are among the most commonly affected animals and studies have shown that in 30%-70% of households in which a cat develops ringworm, at least one person will develop the condition. Dogs, cows, goats, pigs, and horses can spread ringworm to humans and other animals via direct contact or contact with objects the infected animal has touched (such as bedding, grooming articles, saddles, furniture, carpeting, etc.).

How is ringworm diagnosed?

Sometimes, the diagnosis of ringworm is obvious from its location and appearance. Otherwise, skin scrapings for microscopic examination and a culture of the affected skin can establish the diagnosis of tinea or rule it out.

How is ringworm treated?

Ringworm can be treated topically with antifungal creams containing clotrimazole (Cruex, Desenex, Lotrimin), miconazole (Monistat-Derm), ketoconazole (Nizoral) and terbinafine (Lamisil). In severe or resistant infections on the scalp or nails, oral medications such as terbinafine, itraconazole (Sporanox), and fluconazole (Diflucan) are necessary.

Can ringworm be prevented?

Ringworm is difficult to prevent, but you can help reduce your risk by following some simple guidelines. The next several slides provide some helpful prevention tips in minimizing the chance of developing ringworm.

Ringworm Prevention Tip #1

Don’t share clothing, sports gear, towels, or sheets.

Ringworm Prevention Tip #2

Wear slippers or sandals in locker rooms and public pool & bathing areas.

Ringworm Prevention Tip #3

Shower and shampoo well after any sport that includes skin-to-skin contact.

Ringworm Prevention Tip #4

Wear loose-fitting cotton clothing. Change your socks and underwear at least once a day.

Ringworm Prevention Tip #5

Keep your skin clean and dry. Always dry yourself completely after showers or baths.

Ringworm Prevention Tip #6

If you have athlete’s foot, put your socks on before your underwear so that fungi do not spread from your feet to your groin.


Diet untuk Osteoarthritis

Para penyelidik mendapati perkaitan rapat di antara bahan makanan yang dimakan (diet) dengan osteoartritis. Antara hasil dapatan mereka dipaparkan di bawah ini….

For centuries, we humans have considered that our health is influenced by what we eat. Let’s face it, if you eat a taco with hot sauce and have diarrhea followed by anal burning the next morning, the food affected your body!

The concept that diet can, in any way, affect osteoarthritis (degenerative arthritis) is being evaluated by researchers. Keep in mind that this field is just developing and few hard conclusions can be reached.

Here is the latest conclusions:

* Obesity increases the risk for developing osteoarthritis. Overweight people might reduce their chances for developing or aggravating their osteoarthritis by losing weight. Furthermore, if a person already has substantial osteoarthritis in a weight-bearing joint, such as a knee or hip, weight reduction can significantly improve their ability to rehabilitate after joint surgery as well as decrease their risk of surgical complications.

* Vitamin C is important in the development of normal cartilage. A deficiency of vitamin C might lead to the development of weak cartilage. Vitamin C is commonly available in citrus fruits. Supplementation with a vitamin C tablet may be advised if dietary fruits are unavailable.

* People with low bone mineral density, such as in osteoporosis, may be at increased risk for osteoarthritis. Exercise and adequate calcium intake, as recommended for age and gender, can help to maintain bone density.

* Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to increase the risk of joint space narrowing and progression of disease in osteoarthritis. Many doctors are recommending vitamin D supplementation of 400 IU daily. This can also help to prevent osteoporosis.

* For some years now, there have been studies originally conducted in Europe and more recently in the United States that have suggested that the food supplements glucosamine and chondroitin can help to relieve osteoarthritis symptoms, including pain and stiffness. Each of these supplements can be taken alone or in combination formulations. Recent research from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have shown little if any benefit in comparison to placebo. Keep in mind that glucosamine has also been marketed as a “cartilage rebuilder.” This is in part under the assumption that, because glucosamine is a component of normal cartilage, consuming it will assist in the rebuilding of damaged cartilage. There is no strong evidence that glucosamine alone, or in combination with chondroitin, is of value in rebuilding cartilage that has been damaged by osteoarthritis.

~ Medical Author: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR


Hilang deria pendengaran

Walaupun tidak dilahirkan pekak, seseorang itu boleh hilang deria pendengaran di peringkat kanak-kanak, remaja atau dewasa. Banyak sebab yang menjadikan seseorang itu hilang deria pendengaran ini.

Oleh itu, ibu bapa perlu mengawas anak-anak mereka supaya tidak terdedah kepada muzik atau bunyi, sama ada daripada muzik lagu atau bunyi permainan game, yang tersangat kuat sejak kecil sehingga mematikan sel-sel sensori pendengaran mereka. Penggunaan telefon bimbit yang terlalu lama juga boleh merosakkan organ deria ini.

Berikut dipanjangkan sebab-sebab berlakunya kemerosotan atau kehilangan terus deria pendengaran untuk dijadikan perhatian, panduan dan iktibar….

In adults, the most common causes of hearing loss are:

* Noise. Noise-induced hearing loss can affect people of all ages and most often develops gradually over many years. Over time, the noise experienced at work, during recreation (such as riding motorcycles), or even common chores (such as using a power lawn mower) can lead to hearing loss.

* Age. In age-related hearing loss (presbycusis), changes in the nerves and cells of the inner ear that occur as you get older cause a gradual but steady hearing loss. The loss may be mild or severe, but it is always permanent.

Other causes of hearing loss include:

* Earwax buildup or an object in the ear. Hearing loss because of earwax is common and easily treated.

* Ototoxic medicines (such as certain antibiotics) and other substances (such as arsenic, mercury, tin, lead, and manganese) that can damage the ear.

* Injury to the ear or head. Head injuries can also damage the structures in the ear and cause a sudden hearing loss.

* Ear infection, such as a middle ear infection (otitis media) or an infection of the ear canal (otitis externa or swimmer’s ear).

* Fluid in the middle ear after a cold or the flu, or after traveling on an airplane.

* Otosclerosis, a condition that affects the bones of the middle ear.

* Acoustic neuroma, a noncancerous tumor on the nerve that helps people hear.

* Ménière’s disease. Ménière’s disease may result in temporary or permanent hearing loss.

* Noncancerous (benign) growths in the ear canal, such as exostoses, osteomas, and glomus tumors. Exostoses are bone growths that often develop when the ear canal is repeatedly exposed to cold water or cold air. Osteomas and glomus tumors are noncancerous tumors. These all can cause hearing loss if they block the ear canal. A glomus tumor that occurs elsewhere in the head can also affect hearing.

Other medical conditions that do not affect the ear directly may also cause hearing loss.

* An interruption of the blood flow to the inner ear or parts of the brain that control hearing may lead to hearing loss. This may be caused by heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, or diabetes.

* Autoimmune hearing loss can occur in one or both ears and can come and go or get worse over 3 to 4 months. An autoimmune disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, may be present.

What happens in hearing loss?

We hear sounds when sound energy goes through the ear’s three main structures . In hearing loss, one or more of these structures is damaged. These structures are the:

* External ear canal.

* Middle ear, which is separated from the ear canal by the eardrum.

* Inner ear, which contains the cochlea, the main sensory organ of hearing.

Which part of the ear is affected determines the type of hearing loss.

* In conductive hearing loss, sound energy is blocked before it reaches the inner ear. Examples of conductive hearing loss include earwax or a growth blocking sound, such as occurs in otosclerosis.

* In sensorineural hearing loss, sound reaches the inner ear, but a problem in the inner ear or the nerves that allow you to hear (auditory nerves) prevent proper hearing. Examples of sensorineural hearing loss include both noise-induced and age-related hearing loss. More than 90% of hearing loss is sensorineural, and of this group, age-related hearing loss is the most common.2

A mixed hearing loss, in which both the conductive and sensorineural systems are affected, can also occur.

Another type of hearing loss is central hearing loss. In this type of hearing loss, the ear works, but the brain has trouble understanding sounds because the parts that control hearing are damaged. It may occur after a head injury or stroke. This type of hearing loss is rare.

Undiagnosed and untreated hearing loss can contribute to depression, social isolation, and loss of independence, especially in older adults.


Kurang atau terlebih tidur merangsang protein migrain

Terlalu kurang atau terlalu banyak tidur setiap hari akan merangsang protein yang boleh dikaitkan dengan migrain.

Hasil kajian baru-baru ini mendapati bahawa kurang tidur menyebabkan migrain dan beberapa penyakit lain terangsang. Hasil kajian tersebut dikongsi di bawah ini…..

Lack of Sleep Triggers ‘Migraine’ Proteins

New Research Helps Explain Why Sleep Deprivation Triggers Migraines, Other Chronic Pain Conditions

By Salynn Boyles
Reviewed by Laura J. Martin, MD

June 24, 2010 — Not getting enough sleep or having poor sleep habits can trigger migraines or cause occasional migraines to become frequent. Now new research may help explain the biological links between sleep and headache pain.

Pain researchers from Missouri State University report that rats deprived of REM sleep showed changes in the expression of key proteins that suppress and trigger chronic pain.

The sleep-deprived rats secreted high levels of proteins that arouse the nervous system and low levels of proteins that shut it down, lead researcher Paul L. Durham, PhD, tells WebMD.

Durham is scheduled to report the findings this weekend at the 52nd annual meeting of the American Headache Society in Los Angeles.

“In stressful situations such as sleep deprivation, these arousal proteins occur at levels that are high enough to trigger pain,” he says.

Lack of Sleep Disrupted Migraine Proteins

In the study, Durham and colleagues deprived one group of rats of REM sleep for three consecutive nights while allowing another group to sleep normally.

They found that the sleep deprivation caused increased expression of proteins p38 and PKA, which help regulate sensory response in facial nerves thought to play a key role in migraines, known as the trigeminal nerves.

Lack of REM sleep also triggered increased expression of the P2X3 protein, which is linked to the initiation of chronic pain.

“People with headaches often have a hard time sleeping,” he says. “It is easy to see how several nights of interrupted sleep can make people more susceptible to developing a chronic pain state.”

The study was funded by drug manufacturer Merck & Co.

American Headache Society (AHS) President David Dodick, MD, says sleep disruption is one of the most important migraine triggers, yet very little is known about the molecular pathways that link sleep to headache pain.

Dodick is a professor of neurology at the Mayo Clinic in Phoenix.

“The trigeminal nerve is thought to be the conduit through which migraine attacks are generated,” he tells WebMD. “If you think of it as a highway, this study helps us begin to understand at a very basic level the molecular changes that are occurring that cause the traffic that causes pain.”
Too Much Sleep Also Triggers Migraines

About 12% of the population, or 36 million Americans, suffer from migraine headaches, according to the AHS.

Although most people with migraines have one or two attacks a month or less, about 3% of the population has chronic migraines, which occur at least 15 days each month.

Dodick says understanding the molecular pathways that trigger migraines or cause occasional migraines to become chronic could lead to better drugs to treat or prevent them.

Although getting enough sleep is important for people with migraines, having a sleep routine is even more critical, he says.

Just as too little sleep can trigger migraine headaches, so can too much sleep at one time.

“That’s why ‘Saturday morning’ migraines are so common,” he says. “If someone with migraines who gets up during the week at 6 a.m. sleeps in on Saturday, this can cause a migraine.”

The same is true for irregular afternoon naps or any disruption in the regular sleep pattern.

“Sleep routine is very important,” Dodick says. “People with migraines need to go to bed at the same time and wake up at the same time every day. If they get up at 6 a.m. during the week they need to do the same thing on Saturday and Sunday.”


Surah At Takwir – Sheikh Hani Ar-Rifa’i

Surah Al A’raaf – Sheikh Hani Ar Rifai

Surah Ya Sin/Yasin- Sheikh Saad Al-Ghamidi

Part 1

Part 2

Surah Sad – Sheikh Hani ar Rifai

Surah Nuh – Sheikh Hani Ar Rifai

Surah Al Hijr – Sheikh Hani Ar Rifai

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