Sumber makanan utama Kalsium dan Vitamin D

Umum mengetahui bahawa kalsium diperlukan untuk pertumbuhan tulang dan menggantikan sel-sel tulang yang musnah bagi memastikan densiti tulang kuat dan menghalang osteoporosis (reput tulang).

Apa pula kaitan antara kalsium dan vitamin D?

Vitamin D diperlukan oleh badan bagi menyerap kalsium daripada makanan, jika tidak, kalsium yang dihasilkan oleh makanan akan dikeluarkan daripada badan sebagai bahan kumuh/buangan.

Oleh itu kedua-dua kalsium dan vitamin D bekerjasama bagi mengekalkan densiti tulang yang secukupnya, di samping fungs-fungsi lain seperti membantu perjalanan ritma denyutan jantung yang normal, memastikan otot berfungsi dengan baik, terlibat dalam aliran darah serta perembesan hormon dalam badan.

Seperti mineral lain, badan kita tidak boleh membuat kalsiumnya sendiri, oleh itu ia perlu diperolehi melalui makanan yang dimakan seperti bahan tenusu (susu, keju, yogurt), sayuran lain (bayam, bendi, kacang soya), ikan (sardin, salmon, trout), dan makanan ringan yang diperkaya dengan kalsium (jus oren, oatmeal, sereal).

Sebaliknya, vitamin D agak sukar diperolehi melalui makanan dalam kuantiti yang banyak. Beberapa sumber vitamin D yang telah dikenalpasti dalam makanan termasuklah ikan berasid lemak (tuna, tenggiri, salmon), dan bahan yang diperkaya dengan vitamin D seperti produk tenusu, jusu oren, susu soya, sereal, hati lembu, keju, kuning telur, dsb.

Berbeza dengan kalsium, vitamin D boleh dibuat oleh badan kita iaitu dengan bantuan cahaya matahari. Oleh itu, orang yang tinggal di negara tropika, tidak akan mengalami kekurangan vitamin D.

Jumlah keperluan kalsium dan vitamin D sehari oleh kanak-kanak dan dewasa dikongsi dalam artikel di bawah ini…. semoga bermanfaat.

Top Food Sources for Calcium and Vitamin D

Reviewed by Louise Chang, MD

To keep your bones strong, your body is constantly breaking down old bone cells and growing new ones, just as it sheds and replaces skin cells. To fuel bone growth, keep bone density strong, and prevent osteoporosis, you need a good supply of calcium from dairy products and other foods in your diet.

But you also need enough vitamin D. Without it, you could drink milk all day long and the calcium in it wouldn’t do you much good. Vitamin D is key in absorbing calcium from the food you eat — calcium that would otherwise get sent out of the body as waste.

Along with weight-bearing exercise, calcium and vitamin D go together for good bone density — and good health in general. Here’s some advice on how to get more calcium and vitamin D in your diet.

Food Sources of Calcium and Vitamin D

Your body doesn’t make calcium on its own. The best way to get more calcium is to improve your diet. You already know that dairy products — such as milk, cheese, and yogurt — are good sources of calcium. Other foods that are high in calcium include:

Spinach
Kale
Okra
Collards
Soy beans
White beans
Some fish, like sardines, salmon, perch, and rainbow trout
Foods that are calcium fortified, such as some orange juice, oatmeal, and breakfast cereal

It’s a lot harder to get enough vitamin D from foods. Vitamin D is only in a few foods and often in very small amounts. Foods that provide vitamin D include:

Fatty fish (like tuna, mackerel, and salmon)
Foods fortified with vitamin D, like some dairy products, orange juice, soy milk, and cereals
Beef liver
Cheese
Egg yolks

Getting enough vitamin D from your diet isn’t easy. Studies show that only about 20% of our vitamin D typically comes from the foods we eat.

Your body can also make vitamin D on its own. When you walk out into the sunlight with exposed skin, your body naturally produces vitamin D on its own.

How to Get Enough Calcium and Vitamin D

How much calcium and vitamin D do you need? The Institute of Medicine has released the following guidelines:

Calcium

Young children 1-3 years old should get 700 milligrams (mg) per day.
Children 4-8 years old should get 1,000 mg per day.
Children 9-18 years old should get 1,300 mg of calcium a day.
Adults up to age 70 should get 1,000 mg per day. Women 51 and over should get 1,200 mg/day.
Women and men 71 and over should get 1,200 mg per day.
How does this translate into your daily diet? A 45-year-old could easily get her recommended 1,000 mg of calcium daily by eating:

1 packet of fortified oatmeal (100 mg)
1 cup of skim milk (305 mg)
8 ounces of non-fat yogurt (452 mg)
½ cup of spinach (146 mg)

Vitamin D

600 international units (IU) per day for children from age 1 to adults through age 70
800 IU per day for people 71 and older.

To get vitamin D from food, fish is the best option. Six ounces of cooked salmon has more than 600 IU — more than the recommended amount for any age. Other foods containing vitamin D include eggs, liver, fortified dairy products, and fortified juice.

Your doctor may recommend higher levels of calcium and vitamin D, especially if you are at risk for osteoporosis. The National Osteoporosis Foundation recommends that adults under age 50 get 400 – 800 International Units (IU) of vitamin D every day, and that adults age 50 and older get 800 – 1,000 IU of vitamin D every day.

Calcium and Vitamin D Supplements

Ideally, experts say we should get the nutrients we need from whole foods and a well-balanced diet, rather than from supplements. That way, we’re getting the full benefits of the food instead of a single, isolated component.

In practice, it’s not always so simple. Calcium and vitamin D supplements can be important for some people. As we get older, it’s harder for our bodies to make new bone as quickly as it’s destroyed. For women, that’s especially true after menopause. Getting older also makes it more difficult to absorb calcium and synthesize vitamin D.

Talk to your doctor if you are interested in taking a calcium or vitamin D supplement. Together, you can figure out if it’s necessary. Consider these questions:

How much calcium is in your diet? Your doctor might want you to work out how much calcium you’re getting from foods. You can do this by keeping a food journal for a few days.

Could I be vitamin D deficient? Because most of our vitamin D doesn’t come from diet, a food diary won’t help determine your vitamin D levels. If your doctor suspects a deficiency, he may order a blood test.

Should you get more time in the sun? Could sunscreen and wide-brimmed hats explain why some people are deficient in vitamin D? Many experts think so. As we’ve become more concerned about the risk of skin cancer, we’re getting less sun exposure — and producing less vitamin D as a result. Talk with your doctor about sun exposure and skin cancer risk.

Are you at risk of getting too much calcium or vitamin D? Very high intake of calcium — 2,500 mg or more for people 19-50 and 2,000 mg or more for people 51 and older — may increase the risk of kidney problems and block the absorption of minerals. There’s less agreement about how high people can go with vitamin D: 4,000 IU is considered the highest tolerable intake for adults before there is increased risk for harm.

What sort of supplements are available?

There are different types of calcium supplements and vitamin D supplements available — such as calcium citrate and calcium carbonate, and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and D3 (cholecalciferol). Current evidence suggests that there’s not a big difference between them, although some research has found that vitamin D3 might be more effective than D2. Calcium carbonate can be more difficult to absorb on an empty stomach or if you have low levels of stomach acid compared to calcium citrate, so it should be taken with food. Again, your doctor can advise you on the right supplements for you.

Could you have a hidden calcium or vitamin D deficiency? Even people who seem like they should be getting enough calcium and vitamin D sometimes aren’t. Why? Some medicines and health conditions can block the normal absorption of calcium or vitamin D. Talk to your doctor about any potential problems that might put you at risk for low levels of calcium or vitamin D.

Beyond Bone Density: Other Calcium and Vitamin D Benefits

Calcium and vitamin D aren’t only important for bone health. Calcium helps keep heart rhythms normal and maintains muscle function. It also is involved with blood flow and the release of hormones in the body.

Many experts believe that vitamin D deficiency is becoming more common and that it has potentially serious health risks. Besides bone problems, low levels of vitamin D are connected with muscle weakness and immune function. Some studies have shown that a low level of vitamin D is associated with a higher risk of diseases like colon cancer and rheumatoid arthritis.

Source

Hadis – 152 ~ Ubat hati berkarat

“Sabda Rasulullah SAW yang bermaksud: “Sesungguhnya hati manusia akan berkarat sebagaimana besi yang dirosakkan oleh air. Seorang sahabat telah bertanya, “Apakah caranya untuk menjadikan hati itu bersinar kembali?” Maka jawab Rasulullah, “Banyakkan mengingati maut dan membaca Al Quran.” (Riwayat Baihaqi dari Ibn Umar)

Muhasabah diri – kenapa cepat marah?

Mari kita bermuhasabah diri, kenapa kita cepat marah atau cepat naik darah atau baran? Sebelum mendidik hati supaya tidak cepat marah, kita perlu tahu puncanya supaya mudah ditangani atau dirawat.

Di antara punca cepat marah yang biasa ialah:

1. Tidak dapat mengawal emosi

Orang yang cepat marah adalah orang yang tidak dapat mengawal emosi dan membiarkan perasaan marah menguasai dirinya. Orang yang cepat marah mudah diperbodoh-bodohkan atau dimain-mainkan oleh orang lain, iaitu dengantidak keruan dan tidak lagi berfikir panjang.

2. Kurang sabar

Hati yang kurang sabar selalu cepat saja melenting apabila berhadapan dengan kata-kata atau tindakan-tindakan pihak lain mencabar kesabarannya. Oleh itu, perlulah dilatih hati supaya lebih bersabar dan berfikir berulang-ulang kali sebelum mengeluarkan kata-kata kesat bagi memuaskan hati yang sedang marah.

Orang yang kurang sabar mengidap sesuatu penyakit yang kronik atau orang yang kemahuan/kehendak yang tidak kesampaian juga boleh menyebabkan seseorang itu cepat marah atau baran.

3. Ego, bangga diri, riak dan merasa diri lebih hebat daripada orang lain

Orang yang cepat marah juga disebabkan oleh ego. Orang ini akan rasa tercabar apabila dipersenda-sendakan. Ia akan rasa kalah dan tidak dihormati. Orang yang mempunyai sifat-sifat ego, bangga diri dan riak merasa dirinya lebih hebat daripada orang lain. Oleh itu, ia akan cepat marah sebab ia tidak mahu dipandang rendah, benci apabila tidak dihormati, merasa terhina apabila terjumpa orang yang lebih hebat daripadanya. Marah sebegini biasanya wujud dalam bentuk emosi tidak puas hati.

4. Berfikiran negatif

Orang yang berfikiran negatif ialah orang yang memandang buruk terhadap sesuatu, bersangka buruk pada orang lain serta bertanggapan buruk terhadap apa jua perkara. Orang seperti ini cepat marah kerana dihatinya tidak wujud istilah maaf. Ia tidak mahu memberi maaf dan malu untuk meminta maaf kerana merasa ia saja yang betul, walaupun kadang-kadang dalam hati kecilnya mengaku akan kelemahan diri, tapi disebabkan ego diri atau takut maruah tercabar, ia tiak akan minta maaf walaupun berada di pihak yang salah.

5. Berdendam

Jika seseorang itu masih menyimpan perasaan dendam atau irihati kepada seseorang lain, ia akan cepat naik darah atau marah walaupun hanya disebabkan oleh kesilapan yang sedikit, yang pada mata kasar boleh dimaafkan saja.

Bagaimana pula menangani masalah cepat marah secara total dan berpanjangan?

* Di antara kaedah biasa yang boleh digunakan ialah dengan dengan mempelajari dan mengamalkan ilmu agama, terutamanya ilmu tasawuf, untuk membersihkan hati daripada segala sifat mazmumah, termasuk sifat cepat marah ini. Untuk menghilangkan perasaan marah, ia perlu disertai dengan hati yang redha, tawakal dan qanaah. Ini semua memerlukan latihan batiniah, ia tidak boleh berubah dalam masa yang singkat.

Apabila telah diketahui punca kemarahan tersebut, carilah jalan untuk mengatasinya, walaupun secara perlahan-lahan, nanti akhirnya akan berjaya juga.

* Membaca Al-Quran dengan memahami makna, berzikir dan bersolawat juga dapat melembutkan hati yang keras dan secara tak langsung dapat melunakkan hati dan mudah menjadi pemaaf tanpa ada rasa marah dan dendam.

* Sentiasa bermuhasabah diri, jika boleh muhasabah diri setiap malam sebelum tidur. Ulang tayang balik dalam pemikiran kita apa yang dilakukan sepanjang hari. Cari di mana kelemahan dan pencapaian pada hari tersebut. Jika masih lemah, dalam kes ini, masih cepat marah maka carilah puncanya dan tangani puncanya dahulu dengan cara yang bijak.

Semoga tips yang diberikan bermanfaat….

Hadis – 151 ~ Tiada balasan kebaikan orang kafir di akhirat

“Maksud Hadis Nabi SAW: “Mereka yang kafir tiada apa yang dapat mereka hasilkan di akhirat manakala orang yang beriman akan menuai hasil yang banyak di akhirat dan kurniaan rezeki yang melimpah dalam kehidupan dunia.” (HR Muslim)

Spesies baru ikan keli perisai – Pseudacanthicus sp.

PARAMARIBO, Surinam – Spesies baru ikan keli perisai yang dikenali sebagai Pseudacanthicus sp. telah ditemui di Sungai Sipaliwini, Surinam oleh beberapa saintis dalam Program Conservation International’s Rapid Assessment di baratdaya negara tersebut pada Ogos dan September 2010.

Ikan ini tergolong dalam jenis ikan keli berperisai (armoured catfish) atau plat bertulang yang dilitupi dengan spina. Ini membolehkannya hidup bersama dengan sejumlah ikan piranha kerana ia mempunyai pertahanan badan yang baik. ~ Reuters

Namun begitu, nama spesifik bagi ikan yang baru ditemui ini belum lagi diisytiharkan secara rasmi….

A handout of potentially new species: Pseudacanthicus sp. that is a catfish whose armor (external bony plates) is covered with spines. The river it lives in is full of huge piranhas, so it must be well defended. One of the local guides was about to snack on this fish, until the experts preserved it as a scientific specimen. Only a handful of Pseudacanthicus specimens are known from Suriname, and this is the first from the Sipaliwini River.

Discovered by scientists working with Conservation International’s Rapid Assessment Program in southwest Suriname in August and September 2010. Conservation International (CI) announced the results of a scientific survey in southwest Suriname that documented nearly 1,300 species, including 46 species which may be new to science in the press release ‘An Armored Catfish, a ‘Cowboy Frog’, and a Rainbow of Colorful Critters discovered in Southwest Suriname’, received by Reuters January 25, 2012. REUTERS/Kenneth Wang Tong You/Conservation International

Source

Hadis – 150 ~ Balasan yang lebih baik

“Sabda Nabi SAW bermaksud: “Kamu tidak akan meninggalkan sesuatu untuk Allah selain digantikan dengan yang lebih baik daripada itu.” (HR Ahmad)

Kurang tumpuan dan cara mengatasinya

Dalam suasana kehidupan sekarang ini, untuk memberi tumpuan/fokus kepada sesuatu kerja merupakan satu perkara yang agak sukar kerana terlalu banyak perkara di sekeliling kita yang boleh mengalihkan tumpuan. Bagi sesetengah kerja, ia memerlukan tumpuan yang tinggi untuk menyelesaikannya, dan sesetengah kerja rutin tidak memerlukan sangat tumpuan yang tinggi.

Di antara faktor atau keadaan yang dikenalpasti boleh mengalihkan tumpuan kita terhadap kerja ialah laman sosial di internet seperti facebook, twitter, dsb., membaca email yang banyak masuk, menjawab telefon bimbit, menjalankan beberapa kerja dalam satu masa (multitasking), berada dalam mood bosan, memikirkan berbagai-bagai perkara lain yang tidak berkaitan dengan kerja, rasa tertekan (stress), keletihan atau kelesuan, lapar, kemurungan, mengambil ubat-ubatan tertentu, dan mempunyai penyakit ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) yang menyebabkan kurang tumpuan atau fokus kepada sesuatu perkara.

Kaedah-kaedah yang sudah dikenalpasti dapat menangani faktor-faktor yang tersebut di atas dipaparkan dalam artikel berikut…

Top Concentration Killers

Reviewed by Varnada Karriem-Norwood, MD

Culprit: Social Media

Whether you’re living with ADHD or just have trouble focusing from time to time, today’s world is full of concentration killers. Psychologist Lucy Jo Palladino, PhD offers a few tips to manage distractions, starting with social media. It’s easy to connect with friends — and disconnect from work — many times an hour. Every status update zaps your train of thought, forcing you to backtrack when you resume your work.

Social Media Fix

Avoid logging in to social media sites while you’re working. If you feel compelled to check in every now and then, do it during breaks, when the steady stream of posts won’t interrupt your concentration. If you can’t resist logging in more frequently, take your laptop someplace where you won’t have Internet access for a few hours.

Culprit: Email Overload

There’s something about an email — it shoots into your inbox and itches to be answered immediately. Although many emails are work-related, they still count as distractions from your current project. You won’t make much progress if you constantly stop what you’re doing to reply to every message.

Email Overload Fix

Instead of checking email continuously, set aside specific times for that purpose. During the rest of the day, you can actually shut down your email program. This allows you to carve out blocks of time when you can work uninterrupted.

Culprit: Your Cell Phone

Perhaps even more disruptive than the ping of an email is the ringtone on your cell phone. It’s a sound few of us can ignore. But taking a call not only costs you the time you spend talking — it can also cut off your momentum on the task at hand.

Cell Phone Fix

Put caller ID to good use. If you suspect the call is not urgent, let it go to voicemail. If you’re working on a particularly intense project, consider silencing your phone so you’re not tempted to answer. Choose specific times to check voicemail. Listening to all your messages at once can be less disruptive than taking every call as it comes in.

Culprit: Multitasking

If you’ve mastered the art of multitasking, you probably feel you’re getting more done in less time. Think again, experts say. Research suggests you lose time whenever you shift your attention from one task to another. The end result is that doing three projects simultaneously usually takes longer than doing them one after the other.

Multitasking Fix

Whenever possible, devote your attention to one project at a time, particularly if you’re working on an intense or high-priority task. Save your multitasking skills for chores that are not urgent or demanding — it probably won’t hurt to tidy up your desk while talking on the phone.

Culprit: Boredom

Some of the tasks we have to do each day are more interesting than others. The boring ones may burn through your attention span in minutes, making you extremely vulnerable to distractions. Your phone, the Internet, even the prospect of dusting your workspace can seem tempting if you’re bored.

Boredom Fix

Make a deal with yourself: If you stay on task for a certain period of time, you earn a 10-minute break. Reward yourself with coffee, a favorite snack, or a walk outside. Boring tasks are easier to accomplish when you have something to look forward to. This is also one case where multitasking may work well. Listening to the radio while filing receipts could help you stay put long enough to finish the job.

Culprit: Nagging Thoughts

It’s hard to focus on the work in front of you if you’re worrying about errands you need to run or housework to be done. Or perhaps you’re hung up on a conversation you had yesterday, and you keep replaying it in your mind. Nagging thoughts of any sort can be a powerful distraction.

Nagging Thoughts Fix

One way to keep nagging thoughts from buzzing around in your brain is to write them down. Make a list of errands, housework, or other tasks you plan to complete later. Vent frustrations over an unpleasant confrontation in your journal. Once these thoughts are on paper, you may be able to let them go for a while.

Culprit: Stress

When you feel like you have too much on your plate, it can be hard to focus on individual tasks. To make matters worse, stress takes a noticeable toll on the body. You may develop tight shoulders, headaches, or a racing heart, all of which can chip away at your ability to concentrate.

Stress Fix

Learn stress reduction techniques, such as meditation. This can help you rein in stressful thoughts, so they don’t demand so much of your attention. In one study, researchers found that people who took an eight-week meditation course improved their ability to focus. If you can’t find a meditation class locally, look for one online.

Culprit: Fatigue

Fatigue can make it tough to concentrate, even when you have few distractions. Studies suggest too little sleep can sap your attention span and short-term memory.

Fatigue Fix

Most adults need 7-9 hours of sleep per night. Instead of burning the midnight oil, make sleep a priority. This will help you get more done during your waking hours. Also, pay attention to which times of day you feel most alert. Then you’ll know when to schedule your most intense tasks.

Culprit: Hunger

The brain can’t focus without fuel, so skipping meals — especially breakfast — is a top concentration killer. Research indicates short-term memory and attention suffer when you rise and shine but do not dine.

Hunger Fix

Keep hunger at bay and give your brain a steady source of fuel with these habits:

Always eat breakfast.
Eat high-protein snacks (cheese, nuts)
Skip simple carbs (sweets, white pasta)
Choose complex carbs (whole grains)

Culprit: Depression

Most people tend to think of sadness as the hallmark of depression. But the National Institute of Mental Health says difficulty concentrating is one of the most common symptoms. If you’re having trouble focusing, and you also feel empty, hopeless, or indifferent, you may be experiencing depression.

Depression Fix

If you think you might be depressed, the first step is to talk with a doctor or counselor. Depression is highly treatable. Many studies have shown the effectiveness of antidepressant medications and certain types of talk therapy.

Culprit: Medication

Unfortunately, some of the medications used to treat depression can interfere with concentration. The same is true of many other drugs. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist to check if a medication or supplement you are taking may be affecting your concentration.

Medication Fix

If you suspect your meds are clouding your concentration, don’t assume there are no other options. Talk to your doctor about adjusting your dosage or switching to a different class of medication.

Culprit: ADHD

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not just a problem for children. More than half of kids with ADHD continue to experience symptoms as adults. The classic signs are a short attention span and trouble focusing on tasks.

ADHD Fix

If you have consistent trouble focusing, and you had attention problems as a child, ask a doctor or counselor about ADHD. There are ways to manage the condition, including behavioral therapy and medications.

Source

%d bloggers like this: