Air telaga warna merah di Kelantan

Sejak kebelakangan ini bermacam-macam kejadian pelik berlaku, Malaysia juga tidak terkecuali. Adakah ini sebagai petunjuk yang dunia sudah terlalu tua dan mungkin juga masa yang dijanjikan semakin hampir tiba. Dengan kata lain, ia merupakan salah satu tanda akhir zaman… mungkin sebagai peringatan bagi orang yang berfikir!

ATAU

Adakah ini disebabkan oleh fenomena alga merah (Rhodophyta) iaitu koloni sejenis cyanobacteria yang menghasilkan warna merah yang dikenali sebagai “red slime algae” atau jika di perairan laut dikenali sebagai “red tide”? Wallahu a’lam.

Dikongsikan di sini fenomena pelik di mana air telaga menjadi merah yang berlaku di Kelantan baru-baru ini…

Gempar, air telaga merah

WARTAWAN SINAR HARIAN
28 April 2012

SEMERAK, PASIR PUTEH – Penduduk di Kampung Dalam Rhu di sini gempar, apabila telaga milik seorang pengusaha keropok mengeluarkan air berwarna merah seakan-akan air sirap.

Pemilik telaga tersebut, Ramli Mohd Noor berkata, kejadian tersebut sudah berlaku hampir sebulan dan pada awalnya dia menyangka ia tidak berlarutan.

“Namun selepas beberapa hari berlalu, air yang tidak berbau ini menjadi semakin merah sehingga menyebabkan kami sekeluarga takut untuk menggunakan ia bagi tujuan memasak dan minuman,” katanya.

Kelihatan air merah keluar daripada mata air yang terdapat di dalam telaga.

Cuba kering telaga

Menurutnya, mereka hanya menggunakan ia untuk tujuan membersihkan diri sahaja dan bersyukur kerana setakat ini air yang digunakan itu tidak mendatangkan sebarang masalah kepada kesihatan mahupun kulit mereka.

Ramli berkata, sudah beberapa kali dia cuba mengeringkan air telaga tersebut bagi mencari punca kejadian itu berlaku tetapi gagal apabila air yang keluar masih lagi berwarna merah.

“Daripada pemerhatian saya dan beberapa rakan, kami dapati air berwarna merah tersebut keluar dari mata air yang terdapat di dalam telaga itu.

Proses mengeringkan telaga dilakukan bagi mencari punca kejadian.

“Kami sudah menyedut keluar semua air sehingga tinggal tanah sahaja tetapi tidak sampai sejam air mulai keluar semua dan masih berwarna merah.

“Jadi saya berharap jika ada pihak yang berkaitan membaca berita ini diharap mereka tampil untuk membuat pemeriksaan kerana saya ingin mengetahui punca sebenar kejadian tersebut,” katanya.

Sekadar ingin lihat

Ramli berkata, disebabkan kejadian itu, telaga miliknya kini menjadi tumpuan orang ramai yang ingin melihat sendiri kejadian aneh berkenaan.

Fenomena luar biasa tersebut mendapat perhatian orang ramai terutama penduduk setempat apabila ramai yang datang mengambil air itu untuk dijadikan minuman kerana bagi mereka ia dikatakan anugerah daripada Allah.

Mereka yang ingin menyaksikan sendiri keanehan tersebut boleh ke tempat kawasan terletak berhampiran pintu gerbang ke Pantai Bisikan Bayu, di sini.

Seorang penduduk, Abdul Wahid Jusoh berkata, dia dan penduduk lain tidak percaya kepada air itu tetapi kerana ia merupakan pertama kali berlaku dan kewujudannya begitu misteri, menyebabkan mereka berminat mengambil air tersebut dan disimpan.

“Ada penduduk yang cuba memasukkan ikan peliharaan ke dalam air itu dan tiada apa yang berlaku malahan ikan itu dapat hidup seperti biasa,” katanya.

Menurutnya, siapa tahu mungkin air tersebut mempunyai khasiat serta keistimewaannya tersendiri.

Bagaimanapun katanya, mereka hanya sekadar suka-suka dan ingin melihat lebih dekat anugerah Allah tersebut.

Sumber berita

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Tempat paling tercemar dan bahaya dilawati

Terdapat beberapa tempat atau bandaraya yang sangat tercemar di dunia, sama ada udara atau air, dan bahaya untuk kesihatan. Jika boleh cuba elakkan melawat tempat-tempat tersebut.

Disenaraikan beberapa tempat/bandaraya yang paling tercemar dan bahaya di dunia ini….

Below we list eleven places you should avoid visiting. If you absolutely must go, make sure to pack a gas mask, one of those creepy yellow protective suits and gum-shield. Here are the ten currently most polluted and unfriendly places in the world.

1. Karachay, Russia

Between 1949 and 19651 the little lake Karachay functioned as primary dumping site of radioactive waste. Visits longer than an hour may lead to certain death due to the high level of radiation.

2. Linfen, China

Linfen is one of the most polluted cities on Earth. Hang out laundry in Linfen and it will turn black before drying, according to Mother Nature Network. Linfen is situated in the center of China’s coal district and spending a day in the city is equivalent to smoking three packs of cigarettes. Over three million people are affected daily by pollutions.

3. Los Angeles, USA

According to American Lung Association, L.A is the most ozone contaminated city in the U.S. The stratosphere holds an natural amount of ozone, but by Earth’s surface this becomes air pollution. High levels of ozone in the air will harm your lungs significantly and The California Air Resources Board predicts that more than 18,000 L.A inhabitants suffer premature deaths every year as a result of the air pollution.

4. The Niger Delta, Nigeria

It has been calculated that between 1,2 to 1,7 million tons of oil have spilled into the delta during the past 50 years. The leaks are the result of bad maintenance of pipes as well as sabotage. The Niger Delta is the third largest wetland in the world and the oil spill has caused great damage to mangrove swamps and wildlife.

5. London, United Kingdom

Car traffic, industries and agriculture are the main sources of pollution of London and areas nearby. United Kingdom emits the most nitrogen oxide in the world, directly affecting 1,5 million people. Experts say that the inhabitants of London has lowered their life expectancy with 9 years due to the air pollutions. Every year 50,000 people die prematurely due to city pollution.

6. Dzerzhinsk, Russia

Between 1930 and 1998 over 300,000 tons of chemicals were dumped here. Hundreds of thousands of people have been affected by e.g. the nerve gases Sarin and VX. The chemicals are all that is left from the Cold War when Dzerzhinsk functioned as principal production site for chemical weapons. In 2003, 260 percent more people died in Dzerzhinsk than people born.

7. Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, USA

Being called out as 2010’s worst place in the United States, this region has been contaminated by diesel engines, power plants and construction sites, filling the air of year around particle pollution, a mix of dust, soot and aerosols.

8. Citarum river, Indonesia

The world’s most contaminated river runs through west Java in Indonesia. 5 million people live along the river shorelines. Asian Development Bank has contributed with $500 million to clean up the river.

9. La Oroya, Peru

In 2007, La Oroya was marked down by the Blacksmith Institute as most polluted place in the world. Since 1992 the mining and smelting plants in the area has caused severe lead, zinc, copper and sulfur dioxide contamination. According to Time Magazine, 99 percent of the children in La Oroya have blood levels that exceed acceptable limits.

10. Chernobyl, Ukraine

On August 26 1986, the Ukrainian nuclear power plant in Chernobyl suffered a severe melt down, leading to the release 100 times more radiation into the atmosphere than released from both the Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear bomb together. The 19 mile fallout area around the plant is today still inhabitable.

11. Fukushima Power Plant, Japan

Fukushima: Current Radiation Levels Equivalent To One Year’s Level Of Healthy Exposure As 2 Radioactive Elements Detected (12 March 2011).

Sejarah gempa bumi besar dunia

Gempa bumi besar dunia yang tercatat dalam sejarah…

Sumber gambar dan statistik daripada The Geological Society of London.

1906: USA (California, San Francisco). Richter scale: 7.8, Deaths: 3,000, Cost ($m): 524

1908: Italy (Messina). Richter scale: 7.5, Deaths: 25,926, Cost: ($m) 116

1923: Japan (Tokyo-Yokohama). Richter scale: 8.3, Deaths: 142,800, Cost ($m): 2,800

1936: Pakistan (Quetta). Richter scale: 7.5, Deaths: 35,000, Cost ($m): 25

1939: Chile (Concepcion). Richter scale: 8.3, Deaths: 28,000, Cost ($m): 100

1939: Turkey (Erzincan). Richter scale: 8.0, Deaths: 36,740, Cost ($m): 20

1960: Morocco (Agadir). Richter scale: 5.9, Deaths: 12,000, Cost ($m): 120

1970: Peru (Chimbote). Richter scale: 7.7, Deaths: 67,000, Cost ($m): 550

1976: China (Tangshan). Richter scale: 8.0, Deaths: 290,000, Cost ($m): 5,600

1976: Guatemala (Guatemala City). Richter scale: 7.5, Deaths: 22,084, Cost ($m): 1,100

1985: Mexico (Mexico City). Richter scale: 8.1, Deaths: 10,000, Cost ($m): 4,000

1988: Armenia (Spitak). Richter scale: 6.9, Deaths: 25,000, Cost ($m): 14,000

1989: USA (California, San Francisco). Richter scale: 7.0, Deaths: 68, Cost ($m): 6,000

July 1990: Philippines (Baguio City). Deaths: 5,000

1995: Japan (Kobe). Richter scale: 7.2, Deaths: 6,348, Cost ($m): 200,000

1999: Turkey (Kocaeli). Richter scale: 7.4, Deaths: 19,118, Cost ($m): 20,000

2004: Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami (Indonesia, Acheh). Richter scale: 9.2, Deaths: 230,000

2008: China (Sichuan Province). Richter scale: 8.0, Deaths: 68,000, Cost ($m): 20,000

2010: Chile (Maule Region). Richter scale: 8.8, Deaths: 486

11 March 2011 (Friday): Japan (Sendai) earthquake and tsunami. Richter scale: 8.9

Panduan membuang bahan buangan rumah dengan selamat

Setiap hari kita membuang pelbagai jenis sampah, tidak kira di rumah, di sekolah, di tempat kerja, di tempat awam, atau di mana-mana saja selagi kita hidup yang mana memerlukan makanan, minuman, pakaian, dsb. Bekas atau bahan yang telah digunakan atau tidak boleh digunakan lagi, akhirnya akan menjadi sampah. Bayangkan apa yang akan terjadi jika seminggu lori sampah pihak berkuasa tempatan mogok dan tidak mahu mengutip sampah di taman-taman perumahan? Tentulah kawasan tersebut dipenuhi lalat dengan bau yang busuk dan mengganggu kesihatan penduduk setempat.

Kebanyakan kita membuang sampah atau bahan buangan dari rumah tanpa mengetahui bahan yang dibuang itu berbahaya kepada umum atau tidak? patutkah bahan-bahan buangan tersebut diasing-asingkan terlebih dahulu sebelum dibuang ke dalam tong sampah? Semua ini memerlukan pengetahuan asas dan kesedaran siviks supaya bahan-bahan yang dibuang tidak membawa kemudharatan kepada diri sendiri dan orang lain di sekelilingnya.

Oleh itu, pengetahuan asas tentang pembuangan secara selamat bahan-bahan terpakai atau bahan buangan dari rumah perlulah diwar-warkan kepada orang awam. Semoga ini dapat mengelakkan kemalangan atau kejadian-kejadian yang tidak diingini, seperti kebakaran, letupan, dan lain-lain, yang boleh mengancam nyawa.

Panduan untuk membuang bahan terpakai atau bahan buangan dari rumah dipanjangkan di bawah ini untuk manfaat semua….

Disposing of household nasties – safely

Wondering what to do with all those chemical nasties lurking in your cupboards? Here’s how to dispose of them safely.

Next time you have a big clean-up, stop and consider what happens to all those old medicines, pesticides, pool chemicals, cleaners, paint thinners and batteries after you’ve thrown them in the bin or down the sink, or hosed them down the gutter.

Some chemicals become more dangerous when mixed with other chemicals, food scraps or even just water. Some things are hazardous because they contain heavy metals and other poisons that contaminate soil and pollute waterways.

Flammable chemicals and sharp objects pose a serious risk to others — such as waste collectors and handlers, children and curious animals — when they’re sitting in your garbage bin and going into the garbage truck.

Clearly you don’t want all these nasties sitting around your house either, endangering the health and safety of you and your family. So what do you do with them?

The following are some health and environmental hazards associated with products commonly found in the home, and options for their safe disposal.

Paint and related products

Paints, thinners, varnish, wood stain, solvents, methylated spirits, turps, glues and fillers.

The problems:

* They can be highly flammable.
* They can give off toxic fumes when they evaporate or burn.
* They can be toxic to plant, animal and aquatic life, as well as people.
* Aerosol cans are potentially explosive if heated or punctured.
* Oil-based paints contain flammable solvents, and brushes have to be cleaned with turps, another disposal problem.

The solutions:

* Use water-based paints rather than oil-based whenever possible.

* Calculate the area to be painted, and buy the smallest tin of paint that will meet your needs.

* Never pour these products down the sink or an outside drain.

* Use up the products, or give them to friends or neighbours who can use them. There may be a paint collection centre near you for community projects.

* Old paint that has hardened can be thrown out with your normal garbage. Leave the lid off the tin if there isn’t much left (preferably outside, so the fumes don’t cause harm), or pour it over newspaper, let it dry, then throw it away.

* If none of these options is practical, phone your local council for advice.

Medical waste

Medicines, needles and syringes (including veterinary products).

The problems:

* If left around the house, expired or left-over medicines pose a safety risk, particularly to children or people with poor eyesight.

* If you dispose of them in your household garbage, children or animals could be poisoned.

* Putting medicines down the toilet or sink can affect sewage treatment (which depends on bacteria and other organisms to break down waste).

* Used needles and syringes pose a health and safety risk to waste handlers, children and curious animals.

The solutions:

* Don’t put bottles containing pills or liquid medicines in your garbage.

* Take unwanted pills out of their packaging, and wrap them in newspaper. Soak the newspaper thoroughly to dissolve and dilute the pills, put it in a plastic bag and then dispose of it with your normal garbage.

* For liquid medicines, if there’s only a small amount left, pour it onto several layers of absorbent paper, wrap securely in a plastic bag and put it in your garbage bin.

Household cleaning products

Ammonia, chlorine bleach, disinfectant, dry cleaning fluid, drain cleaners, polish and oven cleaners.

The problems:

* Some cleaners give off dangerous (and potentially lethal) fumes when mixed — some toilet cleaners with bleach, for example.

* If you tip large quantities down the sink or toilet, they can interfere with the bacteria which break down waste in the sewage treatment process.

The solutions:

* Never put them down the sink or drain. (Some will obviously go down the sink while you’re cleaning, but in small quantities they won’t do a great deal of harm. However, heavy use can kill bacteria in the sewerage system and may harm human health and the environment.)

* Use up the products, or give them to friends or neighbours who can use them.

* Use less hazardous alternatives where possible.

Batteries

The problems:

* The cadmium in nickel cadmium rechargeable batteries (NiCads) is a highly toxic heavy metal.

* Car batteries contain lead and highly corrosive acid.

The solutions:

* Nickel metal hydride rechargeable batteries (NiMHs) don’t contain toxic material and can be disposed of with your household waste.

* Using rechargeable batteries will mean fewer batteries going to landfill.

* Never burn batteries — this releases dangerous fumes and can cause an explosion.

* For your old car battery, check with your local garage or car battery retailer — they might take it from you. When you’re transporting one, handle it very carefully and make sure the acid doesn’t leak out.

Fuels, oils and other flammables

The problems:

* Fuels are highly flammable and dangerous to store around the home. If you don’t need it, don’t keep it.

* Used motor oil contains a number of toxic chemicals, and may contain lead.

* Oil and water don’t mix: don’t put motor or cooking oil into the sewerage or stormwater system.

The solutions:

* Used motor oil can be recycled Ñ your local garage or tip might take it. (Ask your mechanic, at your next grease and oil change, if they recycle motor oil.)

* Collect used cooking oil in a sturdy plastic bottle and throw it out with your regular garbage.

In Brief

* Think before you throw it out Ñ does the product pose a danger to people, pets and other animals, or the environment?

* The best way to avoid future problems of disposing of dangerous products is to buy and use non-hazardous alternatives wherever possible. And only buy what you really need, in the quantity you need.

Do’s and don’ts

Do:

* Use non-hazardous alternatives wherever possible.

* When you have a choice of pack sizes, buy only as much as you need.

* Give left-over chemicals to someone who can use them.

* Store chemicals carefully in a dry, well-ventilated area, safely locked away from children and pets.

* Leave products in their original containers, and write the purchase date on the label.

* If you’re taking chemicals to a hazardous waste depot, make sure they’re packed securely and labelled clearly.

Don’t:

* Store chemicals in food or drink containers.

* Tip hazardous chemicals down the sink or toilet — a sewage treatment plant can’t break down all toxic substances, and they could create potentially explosive fumes at the plant. Some chemicals interfere with the biological processes used in breaking down sewage.

* Put hazardous chemicals (including motor oil) down the drain or hose them into the gutter — they’ll go directly into your local waterways.

* Bury them — they can poison local plants and wildlife, contaminate soil and leach into the groundwater system.

* Unless stated otherwise in this article, don’t throw them in the garbage bin. Seemingly harmless on their own, chemicals can react with other substances, possibly creating dangerous fumes, and even a fire or explosion in the garbage truck or waste centre. In landfill, they can leach into the soil and the groundwater system.

Source

Keajaiban air

Air sebagai asas kehidupan sangat diperlukan. Berbagai jenis air yang terdapat di dunia ini, termasuk air zamzam iaitu air yang paling unik dan berkhasiat di dunia. Air zamzam merupakan rahmat kepada orang-orang Islam.

Berikut dikongsi bersama beberapa keajaiban air dalam kehidupan kita.

Stay Slimmer With Water

Trying to lose weight? Water revs up metabolism and helps you feel full.

Replace calorie-laden beverages with water, and drink a glass before meals to help you feel fuller.

Drinking more water also helps amp up metabolism – especially if your glass is icy cold. Your body must work to warm the water up, burning a few extra calories in the process.

Water Boosts Your Energy

If you’re feeling drained and depleted, get a pick-me-up with water. Dehydration makes you feel fatigued.

Water helps the blood transport oxygen and other essential nutrients to your cells.

If you’re getting enough water, your heart also doesn’t have to work as hard to pump blood throughout your body.

Lower Stress With Water

85% of your brain tissue is water. If you’re dehydrated, both your body and your mind will be stressed.

If you’re feeling thirsty, you’re already a little dehydrated.

To keep stress levels down, keep a glass of water at your desk or tote a sports bottle and sip regularly.

Build Muscle Tone With Water

Drinking water helps prevent muscle cramping and lubricates joints in the body.

When you’re well hydrated, you can exercise longer and stronger without “hitting the wall.”

Nourish Your Skin

Fine lines and wrinkles are deeper when you’re dehydrated. Water is nature’s own beauty cream.

Drinking water hydrates skin cells and plumps them up, making your face look younger.

It also flushes out impurities and improves circulation and blood flow, leaving your face clean, clear, and glowing.

Stay Regular With Water

Along with fiber, water is essential to good digestion.

Water helps dissolve waste particles and passes them smoothly through your digestive tract.

If you’re dehydrated, your body absorbs all the water, leaving your colon dry and making it more difficult to pass waste.

Water Reduces Kidney Stones

The rate of painful kidney stones is rising because people – including children – aren’t drinking enough water.

Water dilutes the salts and minerals in your urine that form the solid crystals known as kidney stones.

Kidney stones can’t form in diluted urine, so reduce your risk with plenty of water!

Are You Drinking Enough Water?

Generally, nutritionists recommend we follow the “8×8 rule.”

Drink eight 8-ounce glasses of water a day.
You may need more water if you exercise or sweat heavily.
You may need less water if you drink other beverages often.

Source

Kurangkan Emisi Karbon dengan Pengurusan Sisa Pepejal Bersistematik

Sejauh manakah 1Green Malaysia ini akan berjaya?

Tidak dinafikan kejayaannya bergantung kepada komitmen semua pihak, termasuk pihak berkuasa, pembuat polisi, pelaksana polisi dan seterusnya rakyat keseluruhannya. Kalau satu pihak saja yang bersungguh tetapi pihak lain buat endah tak endah, 1Green Malaysia akan tinggal impian dan retorik semata-mata.

Kenapa Akta Pengurusan Sisa Pepejal dan Pembersihan Awam 2007 yang telah berumur 3 tahun itu belum dikuatkuasakan lagi? Perlukah tempoh yang begitu lama untuk dilaksanakan?

Walau apapun masih belum terlambat untuk kerajaan menguatkuasakan pengurusan Sisa Pepejal dengan baik dan berkesan supaya hasil yang positif dapat dinikmati oleh rakyat. Buat masa kini pembuangan sisa pepejal yang tidak terurus dan tidak menepati piawaian antarabangsa amat membimbangkan, terutamanya penghasilan gas metana (CH4) yang menyebabkan pencemaran udara dan menipiskan lapisan ozon serta air larut resapan (lechate) ke dalam sumber air bawah tanah daripada pusat pelupusan sampah.

Diharapkan tindakan dan penguatkuasaan Akta Pengurusan Sisa Pepejal dan Pembersihan Awam 2007 dapat dilaksanakan dengan secepat mungkin.

Cadangan kerajaan mengenai perkara berkaitan dipanjangkan di bawah ini….

Pengurusan Sisa Pepejal Strategi Kurangkan Emisi Karbon

Oleh SYED AZWAN SYED ALI

MENYEDARI kesan perubahan iklim kepada dunia, Malaysia menetapkan sasaran mengurangkan emisi karbon dioksida (CO2) kepada 40 peratus menjelang 2020 berbanding pelepasan CO2 pada 2005.

Komitmen secara sukarela itu dinyatakan Perdana Menteri Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak pada Persidangan Perubahan Iklim di Copenhagen akhir tahun lepas, tertakluk kepada bantuan daripada negara-negara maju.

Ia dilihat langkah positif negara bergerak ke arah ekonomi karbon-rendah.

Ini kerana Malaysia sedar perubahan iklim dan pemanasan global secara tidak langsung memberikan kesan kepada survival ekonomi Malaysia selaku negara membangun.

Perubahan cuaca tidak menentu seperti taburan hujan, ribut petir dan hakisan di beberapa lokasi di pesisiran pantai di negara ini tentunya akan menjejaskan aktiviti ekonomi di kawasan terbabit.

Dengan kata lain, negara tidak mempunyai pilihan kecuali mengurangkan pelepasan gas rumah hijau, termasuk CO2, bagi membendung kesan perubahan iklim dan pemanasan global.

1GREEN MALAYSIA

Timbalan Setiausaha Bahagian Konservasi Alam Sekitar, Kementerian Sumber Asli dan Alam Sekitar, Dr Gary W.Theseira, berkata dalam konteks ini kerajaan mengenal pasti tiga strategi utama bagi mengurangkan emisi karbon menjelang 2020.

“Satu daripada strategi itu ialah pengurusan sisa pepejal,” katanya dalam pembentangan mengenai komitmen Malaysia dalam pengurangan gas rumah hijau itu pada persidangan dan pameran Pengurusan Sisa 2010 di ibu negara, baru-baru ini.

Persidangan dan Pameran bertemakan “1Green Malaysia” itu dianjurkan pertubuhan bukan kerajaan (NGO) mengenai alam sekitar, Environmental Management and Research Association of Malaysia (ENSEARCH).

Mengulas mengenai strategi pengurusan sisa pepejal, Dr Theseira berkata kerajaan menetapkan sasaran kitar semula kepada 22 peratus menjelang 2020 berbanding kadar kitar semula negara yang berada pada tahap lima peratus ketika ini.

Selain itu melalui pembinaan lebih banyak tapak pelupusan sanitari, kerajaan juga menetapkan sasaran 75 peratus gas Metana (CH4) yang dihasilkan di tapak pelupusan, diserap dan dijana sebagai tenaga elektrik.

CH4 ialah antara gas rumah hijau, selain CO2, yang mengancam lapisan ozon dan menyebabkan kesan pemanasan global dengan sebahagian besarnya dihasilkan melalui proses pereputan sampah dalam tempoh tertentu.

TENAGA ELEKTRIK

Berbanding tapak pelupusan biasa yang beroperasi secara pembuangan terbuka dengan risiko bau, penyakit dan pencemaran alam sekitar, tapak pelupusan sanitari mempunyai sistem paip menyerap CH4 sebelum ditukarkan kepada tenaga elektrik.

Dr Theseira berkata selain strategi pengurusan sisa pepejal, dua strategi bagi mengurangkan emisi karbon ialah meningkatkan kecekapan tenaga dan Tenaga Boleh Diperbaharui.

Menjelang 2020, permintaan tenaga elektrik negara dijangka mencecah 20,000 Megawatt dan untuk itu kerajaan menetapkan sasaran meningkatkan kecekapan tenaga kepada tiga peratus berbanding kecekapan sekarang.

Beliau berkata peningkatan kecekapan tenaga dijangka memindahkan sembilan juta tan CO2 manakala tenaga boleh diperbaharui dijangka mengurangkan 11 juta tan CO2 dan pengurusan sisa pepejal pula akan mengurangkan sebanyak 10 juta tan.

“Keseluruhan tiga sektor itu akan mengurangkan 30 juta tan CO2,” katanya.

Seorang lagi panelis pada persidangan itu yang juga pakar dalam pengurusan sisa pepejal daripada Universiti Malaya, Prof Dr P.Agumuthu berkata pengurusan sisa pepejal perlu diberikan perhatian serius oleh kerajaan.

Ini kerana 11 hingga 12 peratus daripada pengeluaran CH4 di peringkat global berpunca daripada tapak pelupusan yang tidak diuruskan dengan baik.

Dr Agumuthu berkata pengurusan sisa pepejal juga dikenal pasti sebagai antara tiga penyebab utama penyusutan kualiti alam sekitar dalam kebanyakan negara Asia termasuk Malaysia.

SAMPAH

Beliau berkata dalam konteks Malaysia, 90 peratus sampah yang dihasilkan di negara ini dilupuskan di 290 tapak pelupusan sampah dengan sebahagian kecilnya ialah tapak pelupusan sanitari yang mesra alam.

Daripada jumlah itu, hanya 176 tapak pelupusan masih aktif.

Sebelum ini, pakar pengurusan sisa pepejal daripada Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) Prof Ir Dr Hassan Basri menyifatkan pengurusan sisa pepejal negara “kritikal untuk jangka panjang” ekoran hanya tujuh daripada 290 tapak pelupusan sampah ialah tapak pelupusan sanitari.

Ini bermakna kurang 2.5 peratus daripada keseluruhan tapak pelupusan sisa diuruskan dengan baik dengan selebihnya beroperasi secara pembuangan terbuka dengan risiko pencemaran air dan udara.

Pencemaran air dikaitkan dengan air larut resapan (lechate) ke dalam sumber air bawah tanah manakala pencemaran udara disebabkan pembebasan CH4 yang terhasil daripada proses pereputan sampah.

Pakar dan aktivis alam sekitar pula menyifatkan kerancakan ekonomi juga menyebakan persaingan guna tanah yang tinggi, sekaligus menyebabkan pembinaan tapak pelupusan sampah baru sebagai proses yang rumit.

Hal ini juga selari dengan peningkatan populasi yang semakin meningkat.

Dalam konteks ini, Dr Agumuthu berkata semua pihak termasuk kerajaan tidak mempunyai pilihan selain memandang serius terhadap pengurusan sisa pepejal bagi menentukan kelangsungan alam sekitar dan ekonomi negara.

Beliau berkata langkah terbaik ialah mengurangkan jumlah sisa yang dihasilkan dengan menggunakan amalan hijau seperti kitar semula dan pengasingan sampah di punca selain kerajaan terus menambah baik infrastruktur yang ada.

“Ini kerana pengurusan sisa pepejal mempunyai potensi mengurangkan sehingga 20 peratus pengeluaran gas rumah hijau di peringkat global,” katanya dan menambah sudah tiba masanya Akta Pengurusan Sisa Pepejal dan Pembersihan Awam 2007 dikuatkuasakan bagi memastikan pengurusan sisa pepejal negara lebih efisyen. – BERNAMA
Sumber berita

Letupan Gunung Berapi Dasar Laut Iceland

Baru-baru ini dunia digemparkan dengan letupan gunung berapi dasar laut di Iceland. Letupan ini menghasilkan abu yang menyelubungi hampir keseluruhan Eropah Utara dan memaksa banyak penerbangan udara di kawasan terjejas ditangguhkan yang mana menyebabkan beribu-ribu penumpang di Eropah terkandas.

Kronologi kejadian tersebut dipaparkan di bawah ini (artikel daripada email)….

ICELAND’S DISRUPTIVE VOLCANO

On 15th April, 2010, British civil aviation authorities ordered the country’s airspace closed as of noon, due to a cloud of ash drifting from the erupting Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland. The volcano has erupted for the second time in less than a month, melting ice, shooting smoke and steam into the air and forcing hundreds of people to flee rising floodwaters. The volcanic ash has forced the cancellation of many flights and disrupted air traffic across northern Europe, stranding thousands of passengers. Collected here are photos of the most recent eruption, and of last month’s eruptions, which were from the same volcano, just several miles further east.


Smoke billows from an erupting volcano which seems to be close to the top of the Eyjafjalla glacier on April 14, 2010 near Reykjavik. All London flights, including those from Heathrow, will be suspended from noon (1100 GMT) today due to volcanic ash from Iceland that has already caused almost 300 cancellations here, officials said.


An aerial handout photo from the Icelandic Coast Guard shows flood caused by a volcanic eruption at Eyjafjalla Glacier in southern Iceland April 14, 2010. The volcanic eruption on Wednesday partially melted a glacier, setting off a major flood that threatened to damage roads and bridges and forcing hundreds to evacuate from a thinly populated area. Picture taken April 14, 2010.


Melting ice caused by a volcanic eruption at Eyjafjalla Glacier in southern Iceland April 14, 2010.


Photo taken on April 14, 2010 the Markarfljot glacial river, west of the Eyjafjalla glacier. Iceland’s second volcano eruption in less than a month melted part of a glacier and caused heavy flooding on April 14, forcing up to 800 people to evacuate and grounding some flights over Norway.


Flooding caused by a volcanic eruption at Eyjafjalla Glacier in southern Iceland April 14, 2010.


A man takes a picture of a road that has been washed away by flood water following the melting of the Eyjafjalla glacier due to the eruption of a volcano on April 14, 2010 near Reykjavik.


In this Wednesday April 14, 2010 photograph, smoke and steam are seen rising from the volcano under the Eyjafjalla glacier in Iceland, which erupted for the second time in less than a month, melting ice, shooting smoke and steam into the air and forcing hundreds of people to flee rising floodwaters.


A natural-color satellite image shows lava fountains, lava flows, a volcanic plume, and steam from vaporized snow. The image was acquired on March 24, 2010, by the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) aboard NASA’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. The lava fountains are orange-red, barely visible at the 10-meter (33-foot) resolution of the satellite. The scoria cones surrounding the fissure are black, as is the lava flow extending to the northeast. White volcanic gases escape from the vent and erupting lava, while a steam plume rises where the hot lava meets snow. (The bright green color along the edge of the lava flow is an artifact of the sensor.)


This picture taken on March 27, 2010 shows lava spurting out of the site of a volcanic eruption at the Eyjafjallajökull volcano some 125 km east of Reykjavik. With lava still gushing, a small Icelandic volcano that initially sent hundreds fleeing from their homes is turning into a boon for the island nation’s tourism industry, as visitors flock to catch a glimpse of the eruption.


Tourists gather to watch lava spurt out of the site of a volcanic eruption at the Eyjafjallajökull volcano on March 27, 2010. Up to 800 people were evacuated in Iceland early on April 14, 2010 due to a volcano eruption under the Eyjafjallajokull glacier in the south of the island, police and geophysicists said.


People gather to watch lava flow at the site of a volcanic eruption at the Eyjafjallajökull volcano near the Eyjafjalla glacier on March 27, 2010.


Heat shimmers above lava flowing from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland on March 28th, 2010.


Lava spews out of a mountain on March 21, 2010 in the region of the Eyjafjalla glacier in Iceland.


Lava spurts out of the site of a volcanic eruption at the Eyjafjallajökull volcano near the Eyjafjalla glacier in Iceland on March 27, 2010.


Smoke and steam hang over the volcano under the Eyjafjalla glacier in Iceland, early Thursday April 15, 2010.


Lava spews out of a mountain on March 21, 2010 in Hvolsvöllur in the region of the Eyjafjalla glacier in Iceland.


Steam and hot gases rise above lava flowing from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano on April 3rd, 2010.


This image made available by NEODASS/University of Dundee shows the volcanic ash plume from Iceland, top left, to the north of Britain at received by NASA’s Terra Satellite at 11.39 GMT Thursday April 15, 2010.

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